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Midterm Study Package Notes - GEO505

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Ryerson University
GEO 505
Sue Laskin

Jessica Medina Fall 2013 GEO 505: F 2013 REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Give an example of spatial variation.  Spatial Variation – The way something changes/varies over an area on the earth’s surfaces.  Cartogram based on population is an example. Give an example of spatial interaction.  An action between two points, upon one another.  Keystone XL and Energy East pipeline is an example. What is the Keystone Pipeline? What is the Energy East pipeline?  Keystone Pipeline - Canadian company to construct a 1,700-mile, $7 billion pipeline that would transport crude oil from Canada to refineries in Texas. o Benefits – energy security and jobs for Americans , better built relationships o Disadvantages – Water contamination, Leaks and spills, Other Environmental concerns.  Energy East Pipeline - 4,500-kilometre pipeline will carry 1.1-million barrels of crude oil per day from Alberta and Saskatchewan to refineries in Eastern Canada. o Benefits – Lower gas prices for Atlantic Canadians, More overseas Canadian oil. GEOGRAPHIC FRAMEWORKS What is a region? Describe the different types of regions and give an example in Canada for each type.  Region – An area of the earth’s surface defined by its distinctive human or natural characteristics.  3 Types of Regions: o Formal – Uniform; what is true about one place within the region is true about any other place (Canadian Shield) o Functional – Nodal; Connected through interaction and interdependence (Ontario) o Vernacular – Perceptual; defined by a sense of place (Northern Ontario) How does Bone regionalize Canada? ie what are the regions and how does he define them? 1. Atlantic Canada 2. Quebec 3. Ontario 4. Western Canada 5. British Columbia 6. Territorial North  Defined by location, historical development, area, population, and economic strength. Jessica Medina Fall 2013 What is the variation in the regions defined by Bone in terms of:  French mother tongue – Majority only in Quebec (80%)  Aboriginal population – Majority only in Territorial North (55%)  Farmland – Majority only in the West (80%)  GDP – Percentage of Canadian Total 38% in Ontario / 23% in the West / 20% in Quebec  Area – Largest Territorial North (3909 km2) / Smallest Atlantic (539 km)  Population – Largest Ontario (12160) / Smallest Territorial North (101 km2)  Comparison of gdp and population – o Almost even in Ontario / GDP higher in West / Population higher in Quebec  Comparison of area and population – o Much higher population over area in Ontario / Almost complete area over population in the North How is sense of place created?  Reflects a deeply felt attachment to a region or area by local residents who have, over time, bonded to their environment and resulting institutions.  The special and often intense feelings that people have for the area where they live. Considered a social product, sense of place can be applied to different geographic levels. These feelings are derived from a combination of experiences: Some from natural factors such as climate, others from cultural factors such as language. A sense of place is a powerful bond between people and their region. Discuss the concept of a faultline as defined by Bone.  Faultlines – The geological phenomenon of cracks in the earth’s crust caused by tectonic forces and may destabilize the nation (economic, political or social).  May be inactive and then reappear. Identify the faultlines that Bone believes are present in Canada, and give an example of a recent event which exemplifies each one. 1. Centralist/Decentralist Faultline – Canadian federalism/sharing of powers a. Ex: 1980 National Energy Program and Alberta upset about natural resources 2. English-Speaking/French-Speaking Canadians Faultline – a. Ex: 1980 and 1995 referendums to make Quebec a nation and maintain its culture and language. 3. Aboriginal Peoples and the Non-Aboriginal Majority Faultline – a. Ex: Two Metis rebellions to defend their land 4. Newcomers and Old-timers Faultline a. Disputes between immigrants that had roots in English speaking families and those who had a language barrier. Identify two recent attempts by Quebec at sovereignty and discuss the results.  1980 Referendum – o Defeated 59.56% to 40.44% - 85.61% Participation Rate  1995 Referendum – o Defeated 50.58% to 49.42% - 93.52% Participation Rate Jessica Medina Fall 2013 What faultline(s) does the proposed Charter of Quebec Values expose? Explain.  The Charter of Quebec Values is a proposed bill in the Canadian Province of Quebec by the governing Parti Québécois to restrict public sector employees from wearing or displaying religious symbols. The proposal was first announced on May 22, 2013. What was the National Energy program of the early 1980s?  1970’s – increase in the price of oil worldwide due to war and embargo.  1980 – NEP Federal plan to increase Canadian control over the oil industry, including: o Freezing price of domestic oil o Federal tax on oil and gas industry o Subsidized imported oil  Alberta saw it as an interference with natural resource industry. Identify factors that have led to decentralization in Canadian federalism.  Strong regional identities because of Canada’s geography (conflicts in regional/national interests)  Growth in provincial areas of health, welfare and education.  Nationalist sentiment in Quebec.  Modern treaties What is the core of Canada? Give three characteristics which make this region the core.  Ontario and Quebec = Central Canada 1. Two largest provincial populations. Combined 62% of population in Canada. 2. 20 / 33 of the Census Metropolitan Areas in Canada. 3. 181 / 308 seats in parliament. 4. 58.4% GDP in 2006. 5. 69.3% Manufacturing Sales What is “Main Street” Canada? What are the implications of that term?  Core highway system connects cities and towns in Canada’s ecumene (inhabited area), which consists of population zones and outliers that the highway system extends to. Define the characteristics of a periphery in the core-periphery model.  Scattered population, physical barriers which hinder development, dominance of primary sector, dependent on core, hinterland, little power. How do regions within the periphery of Canada differ?  Upward transitional region periphery – BC and Western Canada o Economy and population are growing and there is a greater emphasis on manufacturing and service activities.  Downward transitional region periphery – Atlantic Canada o Economy is declining, unemployment is rising, out-migration is occurring. Resources have passed their prime or have been exhausted, and economy has stalled.  Resource Frontier region periphery – Territorial North o Few people live in this frontier and there is little development. Very remote area. Jessica Medina Fall 2013 How do the regions of Canada as defined by Bone differ in terms of economic structure?  Tertiary is largest economic structure in ALL regions.  Ontario has the highest proportion of secondary/manufacturing – 22.5%  Territorial North has the lowest proportion involved in the secondary sector – 2% How do the provinces of Canada differ over the last decade in terms of equalization payments?  Equalization and transfer payments represent a sharing of federal tax revenue with provinces and territories. The purpose is to ensure relatively equal access to public services across Canada.  Quebec receives the largest payment, Alberta has never received payments.  Ontario started receiving payments in 2009/2010  BC, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland have become ‘have’ provinces and stopped receiving payments. How is "power of place" created?  Economic, political and cultural power of a particular place – city, region, country – derived from various geographic attributes related to location, as well as the extent to which this power is used by those who reside there. Why is it difficult to change the core-periphery relationship in Canada? What factors might contribute to a change in the core-periphery relationships in Canada? PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY What are the impacts of Canada's absolute location, its relative location, and its physical extent on its human and physical geography?  2 largest country after Russia, 10 million square feet. What criteria define physiographic regions? Describe each of the physiographic regions in Canada in terms of these criteria.  Physiography – The study of landforms, their geology, and the processes that shape these landforms.  Bodies of water, climate, soils, and natural vegetation. A physiographic region is a large area of the earth’s crust that has three characteristics:  It extends over a large, contiguous area with similar relief features.  Its landform has been shaped by a common set of geomorphic processes.  It possesses a common geological structure and history. Canadian physiographic regions: 1. Canadian Shield – Predominant landform, covering approximately 50% of the land mass, and underlying other regions a. Rugged, rolling upland. b. Highest elevation – Baffin Island 2147 m c. Evidence of glacial erosion/disposition 2. Cordillera – 16% of the land mass. A system of mountains, plateaux and valleys. a. Contains the highest peak in Canada, Mount Logan Yukon Territories – 5959 M b. Formed by the collision of North American and Pacific tectonic plates (active earthquake zone) Jessica Medina Fall 2013 3. Appalachian Uplands – 2% of land mass. Rounded and flat-topped uplands and narrow valleys (excluding PEI) a. Highest elevation at Mount Jacques Cartier – 1268 M b. Submerged coastal area creating bays and estuaries 4. Interior Plains – Almost 20% of the land mass. Rolling, relatively flat, with three prairie plains, rising from east to west but declining north. a. Cyprus Hills elevation 1400 M b. Sedimentary rocks (formerly an island sea) 5. Hudson Bay Lowlands – 3.5% of the land area a. Poorly drained due to lack of slope and permafrost. b. Still rebounding from weight of the ice sheet (isostatic rebound) approximately 100cm per 100 years. 6. Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Lowlands - <2% of the country. a. Rolling and flat; extends from Windsor to Quebec City, interrupted by an incursion by Frontenac Axis, part of the Canadian Shield, at the 1000 islands. b. Arctic Lands – 10% of the land mass. Plains (Arctic Coastal Plain), plateaux (Arctic Platform) and mountains (Innuitian Mountain Complex) c. Highest peak is Mount Barbeau, Ellesmere is 2616 M d. Permafrost Jessica Medina Fall 2013 What are the three dominant climatic controls affecting Canada’s climate? Give an example for each one.  Three dominant climatic controls affect Canada’s weather and climate, and these are related to the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation system: 1. Amount of solar energy 2. Global circulation of air masses 3. Distance from the ocean Describe the spatial variation in winter and summer temperatures and annual precipitation in Canada.  Coastal areas, experience smaller ranges of seasonal temperatures and more precipitation than inland at the same latitude.  Precipitation – a. Lowest average occurs in Territorial North because of dry nature of Arctic Air masses. b. Highest average is along the BC coast, due to the warm Pacific Ocean and air masses. What are the different climate zones in Canada? What are their characteristics? Identify the three basic natural vegetation types in Canada, and describe their general location.  Forests  Grasslands  Tundra What are the primary influences on the differences in the three regions? Explain. Identify the five soil types in Canada and describe their characteristics. 1. Cryosolic – Undeveloped, very thin, presence of permafrost (Northern Canada) 2. Podzolic – From igneous rock, acidic, leached (Canadian Shield) 3. Luvisolic – From sedimentary rock, loam presence of clay, fertile (Southern Ontario) 4. Chernozemic – Organic matter from roots of grass, fertile, ‘chernyi’ (Russian meaning black) (Southern Interior Plains) 5. Mountain Complex – Variable (British Columbia and Yukon) Jessica Medina Fall 2013 How is soil formed?  Soil is formed based on the amount of moisture, heat, organic material from decaying vegetation, type of rock underneath the soil, and type of vegetation above it. Discuss the inter-relationships between climate, physiography, soil and natural vegetation in Canada and give specific examples to explain the relationships. What are the drainage basins in Canada?  Drainage Basin – Land that slopes towards the sea and is separated from other lands by topographic ridges. 1. Atlantic Basin 2. Hudson Bay Basin 3. Arctic Basin 4. Pacific Basin 5. Gulf of Mexico Discuss the concept of a natural resource. Give an example of a na
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