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Ryerson University
GEO 505
Sue Laskin

GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS 1. Give an example of spatial variation (regions grouped based on similarities & differences) Western Interior is composed of 3 provinces (AB, SK & MB) based on their similarities.  However, Ontario is so unique that it cannot be grouped with any other province. *This is due to its geographic size, economic importance, and population size* 2. Give an example of spatial interaction (how things are transported from region to region) Example is how gas & oil are transported through pipelines (Keystone XL-proposed) 3. What is the Keystone Pipeline? Energy East pipeline? (Proposed Spatial Interactions) Keystone XL (begins in Hardisty, Alberta and extends south to Steele City, Nebraska, Montana and South Dakota) Energy East (begins in Hardisty, Alberta and goes through to Montreal, Quebec City and end in Saint John) GEOGRAPHIC FRAMEWORKS 4. What is a region? Describe the different types and give an example in Canada for each type. REGION- an area of the earth’s surface defined by its distinctive human or natural characteristics TYPES: 1. SINGLE-FACTOR: larger scale, smaller area (ex. Downtown Ryerson Campus) MULTI-FACTOR: smaller scale, larger area (ex. Atlantic Region (P.E.I, NS,NB & NF)) 2. PHYSICAL: (QUALITATIVE) - DIFFERENCES IN KIND Canada’s Physiographic Regions (large area of the Earth’s crust)-Fig. 2.1 -Cordillera (most spectacular & varied topography, as well as a strong North-South orientation to the topography of North America) -Interior Plains (strong North-South orientation to the topography of North America) -Canadian Shield (largest) -Hudson Bay Lowland (most uniform relief) -Arctic Archipelago -Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands (smallest) -Appalachian Uplands (strong North-South orientation to the topography of North America) HUMAN: (QUANTITATIVE)-DIFFERENCES IN INTENSITY Canada’s Population Zones & Highway System- Fig 4.1 -Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa-densely populated -North-isolated settlements 3. Formal: uniform (the landscape is the same); what is true about one place within the region is true about any other place e.g. the Canadian Shield in Arctic is the same as in Quebec Functional: nodal; connected through interaction and interdependence e.g. Ontario, Ryerson is a node for Ryerson students Vernacular: perceptual; defined by a sense of place e.g. Northern Ontario GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM 5. How does Bone regionalize Canada? I.e. what are the regions and how does he define them? 6 REGIONS: 1. Territorial North (cold, ice, remote, isolated, ignored, snow, expensive, First Nations people) 2. BC (skiing, rain, mountainous, Western, beautiful, forests, closest to Asia) 3. Western Interior (oil, prairies, flat, agriculture, dry, mining, economic growth, potash) 4. ON (businesses, politics, industrial, diversity, opportunity, centre of the universe, forested, choice for immigrants) 5. QC (French, culture, heritage, nationalism, expansive, farming, scenic, largest province) 6. Atlantic (compact, community, seafood, fishermen, small) REASONS: 1. Huge Canada needs to be divided into a set of manageable segments; 6 regions allows to readily comprehend Canada’s regional geography and place regions within conceptual framework based on core/periphery model *not to say that there are not internal regions or sub-regions* 2. An effort has been made to balance these regions by their geographic size, economic importance and population size, allowing for comparisons -Alberta is combined with Saskatchewan and Manitoba to form Western Canada and Newfoundland and Labrador along with P.E.I and NB and NS comprise Atlantic Canada -Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia have the geographic size, economic importance and population size to form separate geographic regions These regions are associated with distinctive physical features, natural resources, and economic activities, reflect the political structure of Canada, facilitate the use of statistical data, are linked to regional identity, are associated with reoccurring regional complaints and disputes, and reveal regional economic strengths and cultural presence BONE’S CRITERIA: -historical development -location -distinctive physical features -political structure -use of statistics -sense of place GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM -regional complaints -economy -culture Key Economic Activities: -Atlantic Canada: fisheries -Quebec: hydroelectric power -Ontario: automobile manuf. -Western Canada: agriculture -British Columbia: forest industry -Territorial North: megaprojects 6. What is the variation in the regions defined by Bone in terms of: FRENCH & MOTHER TONGUE (Percentage of the Regional Population) -Quebec = 80% of the population ABORIGINAL IDENTITY (Percentage of the Regional Population) - North = above 50% FARM AREA (Percentage of the Canadian Total) -West = 80% GDP (Percentage of the Canadian Total) - ON=38%, West=22%, Quebec= 20%  GDP & POPULATION (Percentage of the Canadian Total) - ON has the same % of population as % of GDP contribution -QC has more % of population than % of GDP contribution -West has more % of GDP contribution than % of population  AREA & POPULATION -North has the most area, but least populated -ON has the most population, but less area 7. How is sense of place created? SENSE OF PLACE: The special and often intense feelings that people have for the area where they live. Considered a social product, sense of place can be applied to different geographic levels, i.e., local, regional, and even national levels. These feelings are derived from a combination of experiences: some from natural factors such as climate, others from cultural factors such as language. A sense of place is a powerful bond between people and their region. *Within Canada, there is no stronger sense of place than that exhibited by the Quebecois*, who translate their social identity into political aspirations  Sense of place provides some protection from the landscape produced by economic and cultural globalization Involves a powerful psychological bond between people and locale; globalized or generic landscapes do not have local roots GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM Local roots stem from the physical nature, human activities, and institutional bodies found in a region Concept of sense of place recognizes that people living in a region have undergone a collective experience that leads to shared aspirations, concerns, goals and values Over time such experiences develop into a social cohesiveness among those people living within a spatial unit Sense of place can also evolve from a region’s history Stronger sense of place when not in Canada 8. Discuss the concept of a faultline as defined by Bone. CONCEPT OF FAULTLINE -first used by Jeffrey Simpson, columnist in Globe and Mail 1993 -divisions that drive a wedge between regions and may destabilize the nation -economic, social, and political -may be inactive and then reappear 9. Identify the faultlines that Bone believes are present in Canada, and give an example of a recent event which exemplifies each one. 1. FRENCH/ENGLISH FAULTLINE French Mother Tongue & French Mother Tongue First Official LanguageQUEBEC Quebec’s Attempt at Sovereignty -2006 Quebecois recognized as a nation within Canada 2. CENTRALIST/ DECENTRALIST FAULTLINE Canadian federalism: Sharing of powers (old age pension, immigration, agriculture) -Periphery says Ottawa favours the core -Western alienation strong during crisis in the East, Eastern population stopped getting gas from PETRO 3. ABORIGINAL /NON-ABORIGINAL FAULTLINE aboriginal reaction to the 1963 Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Canada as “tricultural” Indian Act (1867) – federal government control (Aboriginals have had to deal with settlement of their lands, with subjugation as colonized peoples, and with Ottawa’s restrictive Indian Act) various times, a desire to “scrap the Act” “Idle No More” movement -Aboriginals reside in all provinces but form a majority in the Territorial North and in the northern extremes of other geographic regions -Modern land-claim agreements have led to the possibility of self-government on reserves -Some first nations have obtained self-government with powers at least at the municipal level *In terms of the individual provinces & territories (not regions) Ontario has the largest aboriginal population* GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM 4. NEWCOMERS/ OLD-COMERS FAULTLINE 1971 – 1st country to make multiculturalism official policy a recent “FAULTLINE” addition by Bone highest per capita immigration rate in the world growing ethnic enclaves in Canadian cities -different from the past, move to suburbs not assimilation The rubbing and bumping between those whose cultural roots are in overseas homelands and those whose roots developed in North America necessarily requires adjustments and compromise Old-timers are not always prepared to give ground and sometimes they react strongly to protect their status quo The second and subsequent generations of immigrant groups, by being born and raised in Canada, have has much easier time feeling connected to Canada  Newcomers have more cultural anchors to support them, such as family and friends who speak their language, restaurants that serve traditional foods, and spiritual groups  Disadvantage may be that they feel isolation form other Canadians 10.Identify two recent attempts by Quebec at sovereignty and discuss the results. 1980 Referendum -sovereignty-association (control over making laws, keep currency) -defeated 59.56% to 40.44% -85.61% participation rate 1995 Referendum -Increased sovereignty -defeated 50.58% to 49.42% -93.52% participation rate 2006 Quebecois recognized as a nation within Canada 11. What faultline(s) does the proposed Charter of Quebec Values expose? Explain.  NEWCOMERS/ OLD-COMERS FAULTLINE  Question of Human Rights --e.g. Controversy over carrying a kirpan -2006 – Supreme Court of Canada ruling: allowed under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms -2011 – banned in Quebec legislature -2012 - 2013 – allowed in provincial court in Ontario, Alberta and BC ETHNIC ENCLAVES IN TORONTO Social Benefits of Enclaves: Social Costs of Enclaves: Facilitate the settlement of immigrants  Segregation of schools Promote vibrant local communities  In case of a very high concentration of an Provide the client base for ethnic stores, places of worship and ethnic /racial group, tendencies towards GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM institutions and reduce costs of access social exclusion could emerge. Make possible the economical delivery of settlement, health, social and educational services in culturally sensitive ways Foster ethnic economy and turn into focal points of tourists’ interests Break suburban monotony and diversify urban landscape Realign the geography of metropolitan area 12. What was the National Energy program of the early 1980s? THE NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY -1970s – increase in the price of oil worldwide due to war and embargo -1980 – NEP federal plan to increase Canadian control over the oil industry, incl. freezing price of domestic oil federal tax on oil and gas industry subsidized imported oil -Alberta saw it as interference with natural resource industry (provincial jurisdiction) "Let the Eastern bastards freeze in the dark". 13. Identify factors that have led to decentralization in Canadian federalism. strong regional identities because of Canada’s geography: conflicts in regional/national interests growth in provincial areas of health, welfare and education: increasing importance of provinces nationalist sentiment in Quebec: devolution of powers to the provinces modern treaties: establishment of aboriginal governments 14. What is the core of Canada? Give three characteristics which make this region the core. CORE: ONTARIO & QUEBEC CHARACTERISTICS: -the two largest provincial populations & two largest cities (Toronto & Montreal) -combined 62% population in 2011 (25.2% area)size of population = power -20 out of the 33 Census Metropolitan Areas in Canada + the 2 largest (2011: Toronto 5.584 million; Montreal 3.824 million) -58.4% GDP in 2006 -69.3% manufacturing sales March 2011 -181 out of 308 seats in parliament (59% 2008, see Table 3.6) 15. What is “Main Street” Canada? What are the implications of that term? Windsor up to Quebec City (including Toronto, Ottawa & Montreal) It is Canada’s most densely populated area GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM  Economy is based on manufacturing and its agriculture lands contain the most fertile farmlands in Canada More people will want to move and live in the south because of its advantages (soil and geographic location) this could be a problem because this area could become very overpopulated Define the characteristics of a core & periphery in the core-periphery model. CORE PERIPHERY  concentration of population  scattered population  highly urbanized  physical barriers which hinder development  diversified economy  *dominance of primary sector (direct  wealthy (GDP) extraction/production of natural resources incl.  centre of power (seats in Parliament) agriculture, fishing, logging and mining)  capacity for innovation  weakly integrated  generally favourable natural features  little power  and accessibility to markets  poor  “heartland”  dependent on the core  “hinterland” 16. How do regions within the periphery of Canada differ? PERIPHERY REGIONS: NATIONAL VERSION OF THE CORE/PERIPHERY MODEL (TABLE 1.4) -Core region: (Ontario & Quebec): focus of economic, political & social activity, most people live in the core, highly urbanized and industrialized, high capacity for innovation & economic change -Periphery region: upward transitional region (BC & Western Canada): economy & population is growing as both capital and labour flow into this rapidly developed area, greater emphasis on manuf. & service activities -Periphery region: downward transitional region (Atlantic Canada): economy is declining, unemployment is rising, out-migration is occurring, “old” region dependent on resource development for its economic growth, regional economy has stalled -Periphery region: resource frontier (Territorial North): far from the core region, few people live in this frontier and little development has taken place, resource companies are just beginning to penetrate into this remote area, as energy and mineral deposits are discovered, the prospects for economic growth are enhanced 17. How do the regions of Canada as defined by Bone differ in terms of economic structure?  Big changes in primary and secondary economic structures GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY  Forestry (lumber, cutting trees)  Construction  Service  Mining (extraction of oil & gas)  Processing  Fishing  Agriculture 18. How do the provinces of Canada differ over the last decade in terms of equalization payments? For 2009-2010, AB, SK & NF declared “have” provinces, the remaining 7, including ON for the first time received equalization payments QC continues to receive the largest payment in 2009-2010 ($8.4 billion) In 2009-2010, territories & provinces received over $60 billion through all of the major transfers (2 main transfers: Canada Health Transfer & Canada Social Transfer) 19. How is "power of place" created? POWER OF PLACE: Economic, political and cultural power of a particular place – city, region, country – derived from various geographic attributes related to location, as well as the extent to which this power is used by those who reside there (goes back to the classic staples theory) -e.g. Place of Toronto in Canada -Bay Street= the financial heart; Bloor Street= the “Mink Mile” “Canada’s premier retail road” Boom-and-bust cycles (rapid increases and decreases in economic activity) are most evident in the Territorial North, where the economy depends most heavily on natural resources Super cycle theory: 1) demand will tend to outstrip supplykeep prices high 2) in a global economic downturn; demand from industrializing countries will keep price declines to a min. 20. Why is it difficult to change the core-periphery relationship in Canada? Core still has the Parliament power Core is still #1 choice for immigrants More pull factors than pushing people away Inertia: always been that way GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM 21. What factors might contribute to a change in the core-periphery relationships in Canada? Oil prices Economic recession in 2008 affected manuf. Business in ON Newfoundland recently discovered oil PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 22. What are the impacts of Canada's absolute location, its relative location, and its physical extent on its human and physical geography? ABSOLUTE LOCATION -(North Pole-90° N latitude, Canada-83° N; Southern latitude-41° N, California-39° N) Implications: Canada is very big & extends over a large area RELATIVE LOCATION -Canada is very close to USA , Russia & France, also very close to Greenland Implications: disputes over fishing with France in Atlantic; some disputes over Denmark NEIGHBOURS (economic zones-200 nautical miles = water zone) -borders on US, 21 km to St. Pierre and Miquelon (FR), 21 km to Greenland (DK), 750 km to North Pole, 1700 km to Russia, 3200 km to Britain, & 7250 km to Japan Implications: conflict over water between St. Pierre & Miquelon & NF b/c they are so close PHYSICAL EXTENT -2nd largest country after Russia -10 million sq. km -5514 km east to west, 4634 km north to south Implications: needs for infrastructure to connect Canada E to Wpipeline, railroad building 23. What criteria define physiographic regions? Describe each of the physiographic regions in Canada in terms of these criteria. CRITERIA: - Extends over a large, contiguous area with similar relief features -Its landform has been shaped by a common set of geographic processes -It possesses a common geographical structure and history GEO 505: REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE MID-TERM 7 PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS The - From the Precambrian Era Canadian - Largest physiographic region Shield - predominant landform, covering approx. 50% of Canada’s landmass and underlying other regions - Forms the ancient geological core - Consists of mainly rugged, rolling uplands - Shaped like inverted saucer - Lowest elevation are along the Hudson Bay shoreline - Highest elevation Baffin Island 2147m - Evidence of glacial erosion and deposition caused by giant ice sheets slowly grinding over the earth’s surface - Some areas of the shield are dotted by single-industry mining towns  Iron-mining town of Labrador City, Nickel centre of Sudbury, Copper mining & smelter town of Flin Flon, MB The - From the Cenozoic Era Cordillera -Most spectacular & varies topography (region of mountains, plateaus and valley’s) - 16% of Canada’s land mass - NS alignment - BC- Yukon and Western border is the Pacific Ocean - Contains the highest peak in Canada, Mount Logan, Y
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