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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Sui Sui

Chapter 2: Classical Management Approaches Key Terms: Bureaucracy: A rational and efficient form of organization founded on logic, order, and legitimate discipline Webers characteristics of bureaucratic organization: - Clear division of labour - Clear hierarchy of authority - Formal rules and procedures -Impersonality -Careers based on merit Hawthorne Effect: is the tendency of persons singled out for special attention to perform as expected Human Relations movement: suggests that managers using good human relations will achieve productivity. Organizational Behaviour: is a study of individuals and groups in organizations Theory X (McGregor): Assumes people dislike work, lack ambition, are irresponsible, and prefer to be led. Theory Y: assumes people are willing to work, accept responsibility , are self-directed and creative Self-fulfilling prophecy: occurs when a person acts in ways that confirm anothers expectations Management Science: Uses mathematical techniques to analyze and solve management problems - Mathematical Forecasting: helps make future projections that are usual in the planning process - Linear programming: used to calculate how best to allocate scarce resources among competing uses. - Simulations: create models of problems so different under various assumptions can be tested. System: is a collection of interrelated parts working together for a purpose Subsystem: is a smaller component of a larger system Open system: interacts with its environment and transforms resource inputs into outputs Contingency thinking: tries to match management practices with situational demands Theory Z: describes management emphasizing long-term employment, consensus and teamwork Learning organization: continuously changes and improves, using the lessons of experience - Peter Senge identifies core ingredients: 1. Mental Models: everyone sets aside old ways of thinking 2. Personal Mastery: everyone becomes self aware and open to others 3. Systems thinking: everyone learns how the whole organization works 4. Shared Vision: everyone understands and agrees to a plan of action 5. Team Learning: everyone works together to accomplish the plan st 21 Century MANAGER must DISPLAY THESE 4 ATTRIBUTES: 1. Global Strategist 2. Master of technology: 3. Inspiring Leader: 4. Model of ethical behaviour: CHAPTER 8: Planning and Controlling KEY TERMS: Planning: is the process of setting objectives and determining how to accomplish them Objectives: are specific results that one wishes to achieve Plan: is a statement of intended means for accomplishing objectives STEPS in the SYSTEMATIC PLANNING process include the following: 1. Define your objectives 2. Determine where you stand vis-a-vis objectives 3. Develop premises regarding future conditions 4. Analyze and choose among alternatives 5. Implement the plan and evaluate results GOOD PLANNING: Makes us more (Stephen R. Covey) 1. Results oriented 2. Priority oriented 3. Advantage oriented 4. Change oriented: Means-end chain: lower-level objectives help accomplish higher-level ones Rational Comprehensive Planning (RCP) : Focuses on a logical-decision making approach and advocates a holistic approach to problem solving Strategic plan: identifies long-term directions for the organization Operational Plan: identifies activities to implement strategic plans Policy: is a standing plan that communicates broad guidelines for decisions and action Procedure/Rule: precisely describes actions that are to be taken into specific situations Zero-based budget: allocates resources as if each budget were brand new Projects: are one-times activities that have clear beginning and end points Project management: makes sure that activities required to complete a project are accomplished on time and correctly Contingency planning: identifies alternative courses of action to take when things go wrong Scenario planning: identifies alternative future scenarios and makes plans to deal with each Benchmarking: uses external comparisons to gain insights for planning Best practices: things that lead to superior performances Participatory planning: includes the persons who will be affected by plans and/or will implement them. Controlling: is the process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results. STEPS IN THE CONTROL PROCESS : 1. Establish objectives and standards 2. Measure actual performance 3. Compare results with objectives and standards 4. Take corrective action as needed After-action review: identifies lessons learned in a completed project, task, force, or special operation Output standard: measures performance results in terms of quantity, quality, cost or time Input standard: measures work efforts that go into a performance task Management by exception: focuses on substantial differences between actual and desired performance TYPES OF CONTROLS Feedforward Controls: ensure the right directions are set and the right resource inputs are available ( Solve problems as the occur) Concurrent Controls: ensure the right things are being done as part of work-flow operations (Solve problems while theyre occurring)
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