Management Canadian Edition – Chapter
• What can be learned from classical management thinking?
• What ideas were introduced by the human resource
• What is the role of quantitative analysis in management?
• What is unique about the systems view and contingency
Study Question 1
2. Classical approaches to management include:
• Scientific management
• Administrative principles
• Bureaucratic organization
3. Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)
• Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and
proper working conditions for every job.
• Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
• Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives.
• Support workers by carefully planning their work and
1 4. Scientific management (the Gilbreths)
• Motion study
o Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical
• Eliminating wasted motions improves performance.
5. Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) – rules of
• Foresight – to complete a plan of action for the future.
• Organization – to provide and mobilize resources to
implement the plan.
• Command – to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the
best work toward the plan.
• Coordination – to fit the diverse efforts together and ensure
information is shared and problems solved.
• Control – to make sure things happen according to plan and to
take necessary corrective action.
6. Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) – Key Principles of
• Scalar chain – there should be a clear and unbroken line of
communication from the top to the bottom of the
• Unity of command – each person should receive orders from
only one boss.
• Unity of direction – one person should be in charge of all
activites with the same performance objective.
7. Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett)
• Groups and human cooperation:
o Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can
combine their talents for a greater food.
o Organizations are cooperating “communities” of
managers and workers.
o Manager’s job is to help people in the organization
cooperate and achieve an integration of interests.
2 8. Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett)
• Forward-looking management insights:
o Making every employee an owner creates a sense of
collective responsibility (precursor of employee
ownership, profit sharing, and gain-sharing)
o Business problems involve a variety of inter-related
factors (precursor of systems thinking)
o Private profits relative to public good (precursor of
managerial ethics and social responsibility)
9. Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber)
o An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of
o Based on principles of logic, order and legitimate
10. Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:
• Clear division of labor
• Clear hierarchy of authority
• Formal rules and procedures
• Careers based on merit
Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy:
• Excessive paperwork or “red rape:
• Slowness in handling problems
• Rigidity in the face of shifting needs
3 • Resistance to change
• Employee apathy
11. Human resource approaches include:
• Hawthorne studies
• Maslow’s theory of human needs
• McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
• Argyris’ theory of adult personality
12. Hawthorne studies
• Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical
conditions affected worker output.
• No consistent relationship found.
• “Psychological factors” influenced results.
13. Hawthorne studies (cont.)
• Relay assembly test-room studies
o Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact
o Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of
o Factors that accounted for increased productivity:
4 14. Hawthorne studies (cont.)
• Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations, and group
o Some things satisfied some workers but not others.
o People restricted output to adhere to group norms.
• Lessons from the Hawthorn Studies:
o Social and human concerns are keys to productivity.
o Hawthorne effect – people who are singled out for
special attention perform as expected.
15. Maslow’s theory of human needs
• A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency a person
feels compelled to satisfy.
• Need levels:
16. Maslow’s theory of human needs
• Deficit principle
o A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior.
5 • Progression principle
o A need becomes a motivator once the preceding lower-
level need is satisfied.
• Both principles cease to opera