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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Jian Guan

Management Canadian Edition – Chapter 2 Study Questions • What can be learned from classical management thinking? • What ideas were introduced by the human resource approaches? • What is the role of quantitative analysis in management? • What is unique about the systems view and contingency thinking? Study Question 1 2. Classical approaches to management include: • Scientific management • Administrative principles • Bureaucratic organization 3. Scientific management (Frederick Taylor) • Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job. • Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job. • Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives. • Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles. 1 4. Scientific management (the Gilbreths) • Motion study o Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. • Eliminating wasted motions improves performance. 5. Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) – rules of management: • Foresight – to complete a plan of action for the future. • Organization – to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan. • Command – to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan. • Coordination – to fit the diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved. • Control – to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action. 6. Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) – Key Principles of Management: • Scalar chain – there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization. • Unity of command – each person should receive orders from only one boss. • Unity of direction – one person should be in charge of all activites with the same performance objective. 7. Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett) • Groups and human cooperation: o Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can combine their talents for a greater food. o Organizations are cooperating “communities” of managers and workers. o Manager’s job is to help people in the organization cooperate and achieve an integration of interests. 2 8. Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett) • Forward-looking management insights: o Making every employee an owner creates a sense of collective responsibility (precursor of employee ownership, profit sharing, and gain-sharing) o Business problems involve a variety of inter-related factors (precursor of systems thinking) o Private profits relative to public good (precursor of managerial ethics and social responsibility) 9. Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber) • Bureaucracy o An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization. o Based on principles of logic, order and legitimate authority. 10. Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations: • Clear division of labor • Clear hierarchy of authority • Formal rules and procedures • Impersonality • Careers based on merit Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy: • Excessive paperwork or “red rape: • Slowness in handling problems • Rigidity in the face of shifting needs 3 • Resistance to change • Employee apathy • 11. Human resource approaches include: • Hawthorne studies • Maslow’s theory of human needs • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y • Argyris’ theory of adult personality 12. Hawthorne studies • Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected worker output. • No consistent relationship found. • “Psychological factors” influenced results. 13. Hawthorne studies (cont.) • Relay assembly test-room studies o Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact on output. o Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of previous experiment. o Factors that accounted for increased productivity:  Group atmosphere  Participative atmosphere 4 14. Hawthorne studies (cont.) • Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations, and group processes. o Some things satisfied some workers but not others. o People restricted output to adhere to group norms. • Lessons from the Hawthorn Studies: o Social and human concerns are keys to productivity. o Hawthorne effect – people who are singled out for special attention perform as expected. 15. Maslow’s theory of human needs • A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency a person feels compelled to satisfy. • Need levels: o Physiological o Safety o Social o Esteem o Self-actualization 16. Maslow’s theory of human needs • Deficit principle o A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior. 5 • Progression principle o A need becomes a motivator once the preceding lower- level need is satisfied. • Both principles cease to opera
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