Designs in which parts or components of a product are subdivided into modules that are easily interchanged or replaced. Improved ability to satisfy customer requirements by allowing them to mix and match their own taste. Relatively few diff modules are mixed to produce a huge variety of products failures are often easier to diagnose and remedy because there are fewer pieces to investigate simple purchasing inventory control and assembly operation. Using computers to design products and prepare engineering computation. Using computers and program to control manufacturing equipment. Cam is a subsequent computer aided process after cad as the model generated in cad can be input into cam software which then controls machine tool. Benefits of cad/cam: product quality, shorter design time, production cost reduction, database availability, new range of capabilities. Computer tech used to develop an interactive 3d model of a product from the basic. Allows ppl to see the financial designs before a physical model is built.