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Global Management:
Chapter 11: Leading and Leadership Development
The Late Grace Hopper:
Managers need to spend time dealing with the status quo and focus more on “fighting out
what needs to be changed”
“The present moment is the domain of managers. The future is the domain of leaders”
Leaders become great by bringing out the best in people
Leaders are expected to focus on long term goals while dealing with short term ones
The Nature of Leadership
Leadership: the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks
Leadership is one of the most popular management topics
Leading (to inspire the effort) : communicate the vision, build enthusiasm, motivate
commitment hard work
Leadership and Power:
Leadership essentially begins with the ways a manager uses power to influence the
behavior of other people
Power: ability to get someone else to do something you want done or to make things
happen the way you want
Power of Position:
Reward Power: is the capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing
other people
Coercive power: the capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of
influencing other people
Legitimate Power: the capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority or
the rights of office
Personal Power:
Expert power: is the capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge
Referent Power: is the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to
identify personally with you
Leadership and Vision:
Great leaders get extraordinary things done in organizations by inspiring and motivating
others toward a common purpose
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Successful leadership is associated with a vision: a clear sense of the future
Are able to turn vision into accomplishment
Visionary Leadership: brings to the situation a clear sense of the future and an
understanding of how to get there
Lorraine Monroe Leadership Institute: “to develop and support public school leaders who
view solid education as a necessity of transforming children’s lives and who are
committed to leading consistently high achieving schools where all students, beginning
with kindergarten, are prepared to enter and graduate from college”
There leadership is backed up by the statement, “we can reform society only if every
place we live, every school, workplace, church and family becomes a site of reform”
Leadership as Service:
Servant leadership: is follower-centered and committed to helping others in their work
Empowerment: enables others to gain and use decision making power
Servant leaders empower others by providing them with the information, responsibility,
authority and trust to make decisions and act independently
“institutions function better when the idea, the dream, is the fore, and the person, the
leader is seen as servant to the dream
Leadership Traits and Behaviours:
Leadership Traits:
Physical characteristics such as a person’s height, weights and physique make no
difference in determining leadership success
A comprehensive review by Shelley Kirkpatrick and Edwin Locke indentifies these
personal traits of many successful leaders
Drive: successful leaders have high energy, display initiative and are tenacious
Self confidence: successful leaders trust themselves and have confidence in their abilities
Creativity: successful leaders are creative and original in their thinking
Cognitive ability: successful leaders have the intelligence to integrate and interpret
Job-relevant knowledge: successful leaders know their industry and its technical
Motivation: successful leaders enjoy influencing others to achieve share goals
Flexibility: successful leaders adapt to fit the needs of followers and the demands of
Honesty and integrity: successful leaders are trustworthy’ they are honest, predictable
and dependable
Leadership Behaviors:
Leadership style: is the recurring pattern of behaviors exhibited by a leader
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A study by the University of Michigan focused attention on two dimensions of leadership
style: concern for the task to be accomplished and concern for the people doing the work
A leader high in concern for the ask plans and defines the work to be done, assigns task
responsibilities, sets clear work standards, urges task completion, and monitors
performance results
A leader high in concern for people acts warm and supportive toward followers,
maintains good social relations with them, respects their feelings, is sensitive to their
needs, and shows trust in them
Effective leaders were high in both concerns for people and concerns for task
Classic Leadership Styles:
Autocratic style: a leader with this style acts in a unilateral, command and control fashion
Human relations style: a leader who emphasizes people over task
Laissez-faire style: a leader who displays a do the best you can and don’t bother me
Democratic style: a leader who emphasizes both tasks and people
Contingency approaches to leadership
Fiedler’s Contingency Model:
An early contingency leadership model was developed by Fred Fiedler, he proposed that good
leadership depends on a match between leadership style and situational demands.
Understanding Leadership Style
Fiedler believes that the key to leadership success is putting our existing styles to work in
situations for which they are the best fit
Can be either a task motivated worker or a relationship motivated worker
The either/or concept is important
Understanding Leadership Situations:
In Fiedler’s model, the amount of control a situation allows the leader is a critical issue in
determining the correct style situation fit
Three contingency variables are used to diagnose situational control: quality of leader
member relations good or poor) measures the degree to which the group supports the
leader. The degree of task structure (high or low) measures the extent to which task
goals, procedures, and guidelines are clearly spelled out. The amount of position power
(strong or weak) measures the degree to which the position gives the leader power to
reward and punish subordinates
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