GMS 200 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hawthorne Effect, Theory X And Theory Y

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Chapter 1
The Dynamic New Workplace
-the 21st century has brought with it a new work place, one which everyone must adapt to a rapidly
changing society with constantly shifting demands and opportunities
-economy is global, driver by innovation and technology
-smart people and smart organizations create their own features
The best employers share an important commitment, they value people offer supportative work
environments that allow peoples talents to be fully utilized while providing them with both
valued rewards and respect for work life balance
-in organizations, employees benefit from flexible work schedules onsite child care, health and fitness
centers, domestic partner benefits as well as opportunities for profit sharing cash bonuses
Working in the New Economy:
-networked economy in which people, institutions and nations are increasingly influenced by the
Internet and developments from IT
-new economy is also knowledge based, themes of the day are “respect”, “participation”,
“empowerment”, “involvement” etc
-success must be earned in a society that demands nothing less than the best form all its institutions
-organizations are expected for ethics and social responsibility, innovativeness, employee development,
profitability and investment value
-when they fail, customers, investors, and employees are quick to let them know
For individuals there are not guarantees of long term employment
-jobs are increasingly earned and re earned every day though ones performance accomplishment
-careers can be redefined in terms of “flexibility”
-today it takes initiative, discipline and continuous learning to stay in charge of your own career destiny
Intellectual Capital:
-difference between being successful and being exceptional, being successful is meeting goals in a good
way and being exceptional is reaching your potential
-people; what they know, what they learn, what they do with it are the ultimate foundations of
organizational performance
They represent an intellectual capital which is the collective brainpower or shared knowledge of
a workforce
Ability to combine the talents of many people, sometimes thousands of them to achieve
unique and significant results
-New age of the knowledge workers; someone whose mind is a critical asset to employers
If you want a successful career you must be willing to reach for the heights of personal
competency and accomplishment
Learn from experience
-more and more products are designed in one country, while their component parts are made in others
-globalization is the worldwide interdependence of resource flows, product markets and business
-in globalized world, countries and people are interconnected through the news in travel and life style
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-government leaders now worry about the competitiveness of nations just as corporate leaders worry
about business competiveness
-we now live in a technology driven world increasingly dominated by car codes, automatic tellers,
computerized telemarketing campaigns, electronic mail, internet resources, electronic commerce
-technology is an indispensable part of everyday operations
-computer network can bring together almost anyone from anywhere in the world with the touch of a
-in “virtual space” people hold meetings, access common data base, share information and files, make
plans and solve problems together
-workforce diversity describes the difference in gender, race, age, ethnicity, and able bodiless, religious
affiliation and sexual orientation amount workers
-by valuing diversity organizations can tap a rich talent pool and help everyone work to their full
-a recent study revealed for example:
When resumes are sent to potential employees those with white sounding first names like Brett
receive 50% more responses than those with black sounding first names such as Kareem
-diversity bias can still be limiting factor in too many work settings
-prejudice displays negative, irrational attitudes towards women or minorities
-discrimination is when members are unfairly treated and denied the full benefit of organizational
A subtle form of discrimination is called glass ceiling effect which is when invisible barrier
limiting career advancement of women and minorities
-ethics is defined as a code of moral principles that set standards of what is “good” and “right” as
opposed to “bad” or “wrong” in the conduct of a person or group
-ethnical failures are well publicized there is a plethora of positive cases and ethical role models to be
studied as well
-ethical leadership are those who meet the standards of ethical reawakening that places high value on
social responsibility in business and organizational practices
-society is becoming strict, businesses by law must have boards of directors that are elected by
stockholders to represent their interests
-corporate governance is oversight of a company’s management by a board of directors
-there are 3 levels that have different career implication
1. One leaf that are the core workers:
These full time employees pursure traditional career paths, with success and
maintenance of critical skills they can advance with the organizations and remain
employed for a long time
2. Second leaf are contract workers:
They perform specific tasks as needed by the organization and are compensated on a
fee for services basis rather than a continuing wage or salary
3. Third leaf are part time workers:
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Part time workers are hired only as needed and for only the number of hours needed
-skills are not gained once and then forgotten they must be carefully maintained and upgraded all the
Organization in the Workplace:
-organizations in the new workplace are challenging setting, but exciting for their great opportunities
and possibilities
-description applies to organizations of any community to non-profit organizations such as schools,
government agencies and community hospitals
-organizations share a broad purpose; providing useful goods or services
-each one should return value to society and satisfy customer’s needs in order to justify its continued
Organization as Systems:
-organizations are systems composed if interrelated parts that function together to achieve a common
-they are open systems which is organizations interact with their environment to transform resources
into product outputs
-external environment is a critical element in the open systems view of organizations
-feedback from the environment tells an organization how well it is doing, without customer willing to
use organizational products it is difficult to stay in business over the long run
Organization Performance:
-for organization to perform well, resources must be well utilized and customers well served
-is operations add value to the original cost of resources inputs then:
Business organizations can earn a profit (sell a product for more than the cost of making it)
Non-profit organization can add wealth to society, that is provide a public service that is worth
more than the cost
-overall performance is productivity
Productivity is the quality and quantity of work performance with resources utilization
-performance effectiveness is the output measure of task or goal accomplish
Cost of labour is a common efficiency measure
-to achieve high productivity, company must be both efficient and effective
Managers in the New Workplace:
-organizations perform better when they treat their members better
-many organizations fail to operate in this manner which causes performance failures
What is a Manager?
-work with a wide variety of job tittles; supervisors, team leader, department head, project manager,
dean, president, administrator, etc
-managers: person who supports and is responsible for the work of others
-manager is responsible not only for his/her work but also for the overall performance
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