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Ryerson University
Graphic Communications
GRA 323
Natalia L

WHAT’S PREMEDIA? it refers to all the “upstream” processes which occur before a job is sent to final output:  Digital files of varying formats  Film to final plate output  Printing plates  Websites/html, ids, multimedia Prepress Premedia  All processed/procedures that occurred from the original artwork was delivered to the production on a final set of film used to create printing plate  Manual/intensive labour processes: - Typesetting, mechanical prep, copy editing, proof reading, markup (page layout) - Screening (tone images) - Retouching, film stripping, trapping, imposition, platemaking Before 1980’s design studio/ad agency service provider printer Early DTP design studio/client service provider printer Today design studio/client printer Evolved Premedia:  Files instead of artboard/film  Clients start doing own design  Replaced by DTP  Full service printers compete w/ tradeshops for premedia Premedia is more complex/technical:  PDF files/file standards  Colour management/ICC proiling  Digital hard/soft proofing systems certified for colour  Asset management/metadata tagging  Variable data print (VDP) management/execution Prepress Operator: Makes files ready for print device 1) prepare customer files for output 2) fix customer files 3) create ways to automate jobs above (JDF/JMF) special languages telling machines what to do Preparing Files for Output: Fixing Customer Files: - Receive files - Colour usage (control CYMK) - Preflight (check errors) - Image quality (resolution/compression) - Imposition - Fonts/bleeds - Print proofs - Missing files - Make plates - Die lines/varnish/embellishment Premedia Equipment: Premedia Software: - Computers - Page layout, illustration/image editing software - Proofers/printers - Font management software - 5000k viewing booths - Imposition software - Spectrophotometers - Pdf editing - Light tables - Preflighting - Scanners/digital cameras - Colour management - CTP device - Workflow software Line Screen Ruling  Resolution of the final printed pattern, measured in LPI  3LPI (3 rows of dots in 1 inch) Advantages Disadvatanges  The more dots per ince, finer the line ruling  Exceeding capabilities of print conditions  Better presses/stock use higher ruling than - Plugged shadows low quality ones - Loss of detail - Poor print results Print Conditions  Common Line Screens 55 Letterpress news printing/screen printing 65 85 Offset litho (web) newsprinting 100 110 Commercial printing on uncoated stock 120 133 Commercial printing on coated stock 150 (magazine) 175 200 Fine art reproduction, stamps, reduced size 300 film TRADITIONAL COPY TYPES Line Copy Originals Continuous Tone Originals  Compromised of 2 tones:  More than 2 tones - Type on solid bg - BW photos/sketches - Pen/ink drawing - Oil painting, water colour - Screen print  Contact screen on camera  No shades of colour - Scanners used to produce continuous - No dots when output tone images - Solid, not affected by screen ruling - Colour tints created in layout programs  Preprinted mat. is occasionally scanned DIGITIZING COPY Line Work line copy that are digital (line work items)  No dots/dot structure  Output at platesetter resolution (1200/2400 dpi)  Vector-based, resolution independent  Scans are 1-bit tiff files Halftone continuous tone images , varying size dots, equally spaced, small, illusion of CT  Affected by line screen ruling of final print  Screen angles rule to avoid moiré  Images affected by resolution can be negative affected if scaled Tints variation of halftone  Same sized dots equally spaced  Used to create variation on a colour (magenta 50%) DOTS  Most printing processes break down your image into dots  Quality of dots are called resolution:  PPI pixels per inch display reso  DPIdots per inch printer reso  LPI  lines per inch halftone reso Dot Guidelines:  Resolution can be lower for large format printing (billboards)  The DPI is usually 1.5-2x the LPI (150lpi:300dpi)  Linework is output at higher dpi (1200/2400dpi)  *300 DPI is printer standard *Vectors require higher reso than Bitmap Fonts Illustrations Photographs  Linework  Continous Tone  Vectors (CT)  Line Copy  Raster  Bitmapped  Halftones CAPTURING DOTS  Method 1: Scanning o Drum scanner/Flat bed scanner o Interpolation  Flatbed scanners achieve higher resolution, creating additional pixels which do not add detail “faking it” – interpolated pixel/interpolated data Interpolated pixel/data actual pixels o Resolution & Sizing  Images are resolution dependent (making photo larger in PS=larger pixel & visible)  E.g: 4x5 scan at 300dpi = enlarged to 8x10 in PS becomes 150dpi (pixels spread over large area) o Copy Restrictions  o CCDs and Scan Resolution  (charge coupled device) arrays are sensors that capture image detail  more CCDs=high resolution  resolution scanned affected by width of original  cheap scanners don’t use CCD but another photo sensor not appropriate for industry reso needs  MAX RES = #CCDs/WIDTH of ORIGINAL  Beware of interpolation to achieve higher reso  E.g. orig. width of 10’’ is to be scanned off flatbed- 3000 CCD elements. What’s max res can be captured for this original? (MAX RES = 3000/10 = 300dpi) o Pixel Depth  Amount of information capture w/in each pixel  Want true 8-bit to capture all pretty colours  Most scanners capable of capturing more than 8-but per channel, extra info captured is usually compressed down to 8-bit when saving final scan  higher, better (2-16 bit)  An RGB scan (3 channels) done on a 8 bit scanner would have 8 bits of colour info per channel R= 2 G=2 B=2 8 total of 16.6 million colours  Scanners: 4 bit see 2 shades 16 variation 8 bit see 2 shades 256 variation 12 bit see 212shades 409
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