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Review Premedia Final Exam.docx

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Graphic Communications
GRA 323
Jason Lisi

Review for the fucking GRA103 Premedia Final Exam Evolution of PremediaPremedia refers to all the upstream processes which occur before a job is sent to final outputThe term premedia has evolved from the term prepress Prepress referred to all processes ad procedures that occurred from the time original work was delivered to the final set of film used to create platesoTraditional prepress included several manual and labourintensive processes including typesetting mechanical preparation copy editing proofreading markup page layout screening of continuous tone images retouching page assembly trapping imposition colour separating and plate makingBefore Desktop Publishing DTPmany companies worked together to achieve end product PreDTP Premedia Workflow The workflow started with Ad AgenciesDesign Studios to Service providers then to the printerThree significant technologies in the 1980s that revolutionized premedia were the Macintosh Aldus Page Maker Apple Laser Writer Post ScriptEarly DTP Premedia Workflow Design QuarkIllustrator FilesIncreasingly done by the client then sent to the Preflight and Refine Supplied Files RetouchService providers provide final film or pressready to the printer Finally sent to Plate Production and PressPrinter increasingly taking files directly from the clientModern Day Premedia Workflow DesignPhotography or ScanningProofDone by Ad Agencies or clients inhouse design studios then finalized by PreflightPlate ProductionPressIndependent prepress shops very rare most premedia work now done by the printerCommon File Suffixes QuarkXPress QKDPageMaker P65Line CopyComprised of 2 tones the solid coloured background and type or pen and ink drawingsThere are no shades of colour in line copyBefore DTP a mechanical was created that consisted of only line copyPrePrinted material is occasionally scanned using a copy dot scanner as line copyIn addition certian artwork was created traditionally that is scanned can also be in line copyContinuous ToneIs copy made up of more than two tones varying in shades of black or coloursTraditionally produced using a contact screen on a camera Today scanners are used to reproduce continuous tone images and colour tints are created in layout programsLineworkLinecopy items that are digital are generally referred to as linework itemsThey do not have any dots or dot structureOutput at the platesetter or imagesetter resolution 1200 or 2400 dpiDigitally created linework items tend to be vector based and therefore resolution independentOriginals scanned as linework are usually 1bit tiff filesHalftoneContinuous tone images are reproduced as halftonesThey are images made p of varying sized dots equally spaced apartoDots are small and give the illusion of a continuous tone imageTintsTints are a variation of halftonesthey have samesized dots equally spaced apart and are used to create variation on a colourReproduction CharacteristicsSizeCritical when large format output is requiredoSharpnessfocus is criticaloArtifacts dust etc noticeable with enlargementsoGrain silver structure becomes noticeableTextureGlossy or Matte PhotosoGlossy produces better shadow detailContrastDegree of change in adjacent tonesoToo high and details will be lostoToo low the image will look flat and adjustments need to be made to restore the imageHighlightsShadowsLightest and darkest areas in the original that CARRY DETAILoDetail is required to avoid being blown out HL or plugged SHColour BalanceA colour balanced original doesnt have a colour cast to itLine Screen RulingLine screen ruling is the resolution of the final printed pattern measured in lines per inch lpiIt is considered the most important consideration for printing halftones and tintsoMore dip the finer the line screen rulingoBetter quality presses and stock use a higher ruling than low quality onesIf the line screen exceeds the capabilities than the printing conditionsthen there is a risk ofoplugged shadowsoLoss of detailsoOverall poor printing resultsCommon Printing Conditions LPIo5565 Letterpress Newsprint Printing Screen Printingo85100 Offset Lithography WEB NewsprintPrintingo110120 Commercial Printing on uncoated stocko133150175 Commercial Stock on coated stocko200300 Fine Art reproductions Stamps Reduced Film SizeSizing and CroppingWhen photos are digitized they become bitmap images Bitmap images are made up of pixels and they have resolution restrictionsAnamorphic Distortion When one dimension is scaled differently than the other Anamorphic Distortion is generally done only to purposely distort the image as a special effect or in minute amounts in order to fit an exact box dimensionUnless the final output size and shape of a digital image is identical to the original photograph some sizing or cropping will have to be done to meet requirements When scanning it is critical to know this information before starting the scan process to ensure the final image has appropriate resolution
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