Study Guides (380,000)
CA (150,000)
Ryerson (10,000)
History (100)

HST 111 Study Guide - Age Of Enlightenment, Philosophes, Dictionnaire Philosophique


Department
History
Course Code
HST 111
Professor
Maria Piccioni

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
The Enlightenment: Voltaire and Rousseau
Reform movement led by the philosophes- Bayle, Diderot
- Centered in France- problems with government, economy, and society (Louis
XIV, absolutism, Taxation)
- Education and knowledge to eliminate the “evils” of society church
VOLTAIRE anti- French critical of french government, bureaucracy, and church
- “Philosophical Letters”
Although he was condemned his own periods, Voltaire did see/admire certain the
aspects of the past
- 1751, The Age of Louis XIV the age of Louis was one of the Four great
periods of humankind; one-Athenian Greece, two- Roman Empire, three-
Italian Renaissance, four- Age of Louis XIV; for Voltaire, what defined
greatness of a society/civilization was culture and developments therefore.
In all of this works, VOLTAIRE attempted to reveal what he believe to be the “evils”
of French/European society
- Voltaire’s most famous work CANDIDE (1759) attacked war, religion,
religious persecution, governments Catholicism Catholic Church
- Philosophical Dictionary (1764) Voltaire complained that Christianity could
and did lead to fanaticism crimes in the name of religion intolerance of
the Reformation and subsequent Religious Wars
Voltaire did believe that reform and the betterment of society, specifically in France
was possible
- When and how would this be achieved? How long would it last?
Voltaire’s works, along with those of the other philosophes, would be influential in
subsequent developments in France
Many of the philosophes believed that governments and political systems
constituted and “evil”
- corruption bureaucracy, problems that resulted from Frances
conflicts/wars
The result was the emergence of a number of political theorists who put forth their
ideas on the best form of government
- JEAN-JAQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778) argued that it was nearly impossible
for mankind to better itself because of commercial values
- 1750, Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences civilization had
corrupted human nature
- 1755, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality misdistribution of
property/private property
For Rousseau, the real purpose of society should be the betterment of the individual
the good of the community democracy
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version