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HST 111 Final: HST 111 FINAL

Course Code
HST 111
Mima Cvetkovic Petrovic
Study Guide

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Nicolaus Copernicus was a mathematician, and polish clergymen. He is historically
significant due to being apart of the analyzing process of the calendar when the papacy
discovered something was wrong with it. He studied humanism in Italy, along with math,
astronomy, the Greek language, medicine, and portrait painting. The fields in which he
studied defines all those of a true renaissance man. Nicolaus is also known for his work On
the Revolutions Celestial Spheres, which discussed the matters of heliocentric verses
geocentric. He was born in 1473, and passed away in 1543 when his book was released
without even getting reaction to it.
Tycho Brahe was born 1546 and passed in 1601. He was a Danish nobleman who added to
the story of progress of the scientific movement by adding measurements and calculations
of heavenly movements of the planets. Tycho’s appearance was also a strange one, due to
having a silver nose attatched to him through having it cut off during a duel. Although
philosophers like Aristotle, and Copernicus already made models of the solar system, he
came with a new model of the universe called the tychonic model, which makes him
historically significant. The tychonic system consisted of the theory of fixed stars on a
rotating sphere. He is also known for his work called On the New Star that came out in 1572,
he wrote this book by observing a new star in the sky.
Empiricism is a theory where all ideas are derived from experience. It comes from the
practicing of a scientific method o observing and measuring the physical world. It involves
no innate ideas, and believes that reasoning alone does not result in knowledge about the
world. A main figure that supported empiricism was Francis Bacon (1561-1626), he was
even referred to as the father of empiricism. This also ties into the general concept of
natural philosophy making it historically significant.
Utilitarianism is the principle of a utility; a type of ethical standard. This term is historically
significant because it was created due to the outcome of enlightened individuals rejecting
the church, so something was needed to define good. The principle states that a thing is
good if it is useful. And something is useful if it promotes human happiness and welfare.
Overall, the most reasonable goal that society could pursue was life, liberty, and happiness
for all. This term is also important due to falling under one of the general characteristics of
the enlightenment out of six.
Deism is a type of religious philosophy. It was created as a replacement for religion by
enlightenment individuals. This term is historically significant to the Western civilization
due to marking the emphasis of the church slowing decreasing with the acceptance of a
religion like deism, and the expanding of the enlightenment and importance more on
learning new things. The beliefs of Deism are, that God created the world and set it in
motion according to natural laws, allowing it to operate on its own without interference.
The analogy of the clock and the clockmaker is used as a theory. It believes religion should
be rational; nature and God are considered the clockmakers and are rational. Clergy was not
apart of this belief, and believers did not want a church, they believed in a connection
between just them and God. Lastly, belief in the afterlife was present but reward and
punishment was according to only conduct in earthly life.
9. The Enlightenment
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