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HST 325 Study Guide - Final Guide: Andreas Vesalius, Scientific Revolution, Robert Hooke

Course Code
HST 325
Conor Burns
Study Guide

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Sy Greenberg
HST325 – Dec 4th 2012
Final Exam Review:
Major Figures:
Aristotle: Empirical Approach – individuals matter –interest in material
change and causes of change. Distinction between Matter – and
secondary qualities (give form to matter)
Comprehensive system combines:
Methodology: rules for studying nature – 4 modes of causation –
material, formal, efficient, final. Final is the most important
Cosmology – linked to matter theory – 4 elements, fire, water, air,
Matter Theory
Theories of Place and Motion – natural (ex. Gravity) vs violent motion
(ex projectile)
Rules for Presentation and Argument (Logic) – ways of achieving
Ptolemy: renowned mathematician at his time - synthesized several
astronomical elements. Key works: Mathematical Syntaxis, Planetary
Hypotheses – how to address deficiencies of Aristotle’s system while
preserving uniform circular motion.
Eccentric: center of planets orbit is offset from the Earth (accounts for
basic apparent variations of speed and brightness)
Epicycle on Deference Epicycle: secondary orbit centered on deferent.
Causes retrograde
Equant: point distinct from Earth and Center of Orbit. Planets move
uniformly with Equant.
Hippocrates and Galen:
Galen: Philisophical Medicine
Hippocrates: Humoural theory of health – health is balance of 4 humors
of body – blood, flegm, black bile, yellow bile
Aquinas: Faith first, but reason is provided by God. Duty to God to use
reason to investigate nature.
Roger Bacon: Franciscan Monk – Experiment – systematic testing of
claims against experience. Work on Optics – Transmission of images to
the eyes. Had issues of Religion vs Science due to walking on a thin
line between the two.
Gutenberg: Created the moveable printing press – screw press, paper,
moveable type. Between 1450-1500 – more books then previous 1000
years – 1000 printers in Europe
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