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HST 532- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 39 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HST 532
Professor
Martin Greig
Study Guide
Midterm

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Ryerson
HST 532
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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HST 532: Elizabethan England Week 1 - Lecture 1 2017-09-06
Prof: Dr. M. Greig
Created by: L.Cardiff
Page 1 of 3
Read through Syllabus
Seminars
o Readings will be posted to D2L, and they will be discussed in smaller groups during the
seminars
There is a required textbook
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2016
Consists of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland
o The rest of Ireland is an independent state
The UK used to be a unitary kingdom (all power was centred in the capital London)
o Now each part has some of its own independent parliaments/powers (England, Scotland,
Wales, Northern Ireland)
Ireland ca. 1500
Ireland becomes an issue because the English have been trying to conquer Ireland since the 12th
century
o Henry II tried to conquer Ireland in the 12th C sent over an army Ireland at the time
was tribally organized into clans, with no central governments there are four main
regions in Ireland Henry II has trouble because the Irish resist them, and this resistance
continues into the 16th C
By 1500, the English really only control the area around Dublin (the Pale) even though the
English Kings have a “claim” to it (Lord of Ireland)
England and Wales ca. 1500
Largely the same as today as far as borders go, but there is no demarcation of borders because the
English Kings conquered Wales
o Edward I Conquest of 1284 complete and permanent
o English Kings proclaim their eldest sons as the “Prince of Wales”
It is in the 16th C, under Henry VIII, that Wales is officially annexed and incorporated into the
English State
Scotland ca. 1500
Largely the same as today as far as borders go
English Kings attempted to conquer Scotland Edward I went to war with the Scots and defeated
them, but the Scots rebelled and by the mid 14th C they had regained their independence
By 1500, Scotland is entirely independent and governed by its own King
In summation:
England and Wales are one unit controlled by the English King
Ireland was claimed by the English King, but only a small part is actually controlled
Scotland was completely independent
What is an English King?
Modern Royalty
o Queen Elizabeth II when she dies, Charles (the Prince of Wales, the eldest son) will
succeed her this is the established law of succession (based on traditions) this law was
first settled in 1686 with the Bill of Rights
o Changed the law in 2015 so the succession is determined by birth and not by gender the
eldest child will rule next, not the eldest son
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HST 532: Elizabethan England Week 1 - Lecture 1 2017-09-06
Prof: Dr. M. Greig
Created by: L.Cardiff
Page 2 of 3
o Queen Elizabeth II is a figurehead for the country she has a purely ceremonial role
the only constitutional role she possesses is to sign off on laws
16th C Royalty
o Kings are a medieval invention
o Kings were not just ceremonial they held immense power and influence
o How to become King
Might is Right you literally fight for your position the King is the best,
strongest warrior in the land
Medieval feudalism the King was the most powerful warlord and owned the
territory that he governed
o Kings viewed the kingdom that he ruled as his property, and could distribute it to
whomever he wished therefore, he could bequeath it followed old Germanic custom
of partible inheritance (dividing his property for his sons)
Recipe for disaster splits up the country and can cause sibling rivalry/conflict
leads to civil war
o However, there were no laws about succession in reality, the crown was open for
anyone to use military strength to capture and hold it
Ie. William the Conquerer
o Also, theoretically, there is no barrier to a woman being a monarch
However, there is the cautionary tale of Matilda in 1135, King Henry I of
England named his daughter Matilda as his successor Europe was a highly
patriarchal society, and did not think women were strong or competent enough to
rule Matilda is immediately challenged by her cousin Stephen, who brings an
army to fight for the crown there was civil war Matilda never was crowned
Queen, but Stephen was crowned King however, Matilda did make a
compromise with Stephen so her son would become King when he died
o Succession was not always orderly
Ie. Edward III succession what if a king is incompetent and terribly unpopular,
as King Edward II was? the nobility do not like Edward II, but cannot rebel
unless they have a replacement they plan to replace Edward II with his own 13-
year-old son, Edward III, who leads the rebellion with Edward II’s wife/his
mother they gather a French army and successfully defeat Edward II and force
him to abdicate, and is sent to prison where he dies mysteriously
o Only in the later medieval period did Northern European Kings adopt the principle of
primogeniture (succession by the eldest son different that splitting up the kingdom
between all sons) but it was not always successful
Ie. King Henry IV succession when Edward III died, the throne went to his
grandson, Richard II, who was only a child therefore a council of regents ruled
for him until he became an adult when he was old enough to rule, he was
incompetent Henry IV (Richard’s cousin) gathers supporters and a French army
and defeats Richard II, who is then imprisoned and starved to death
o Often rival families, each with some claim to royal blood, compete for the throne
Ie. War of the Roses (1455-85) Lancaster vs. York won by Henry VII (Red)
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
Controlling the Crown
o Monarch possesses large amounts of patronage (land, titles, offices, profitable marriages
to heiresses who were royal wards) so no great noble families wanted the monarch to be
controlled by their enemies
Powerful Noble Families
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