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Study Guide

HST 540- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 42 pages long!)


Department
History
Course Code
HST 540
Professor
Arne Kislenko
Study Guide
Final

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Ryerson
HST 540
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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09.08.2017
Components of Intelligence
Humint: human intelligence; intelligence communicated by humans
Sigint: signal intelligence; intelligence communicated by signal (includes comint) smoke
signals, coloured flags, patterns of flashing lights, blinking signals
Comint: communications intelligence; intelligence communicated by technology internet,
text, morse code
o Problems: lacks humanity, can break/be hacked, is relied upon heavily by entire
societies (if the system goes down doomsday-style, soiety a’t futio
Elint: electronic intelligence
Fisint: foreign instrumentation signals
Open source information: information that is open to public TV, newspapers, radio, public
databases, internet, meetings, libraries, conversations, eavesdropping
o Intelligence agents have training that allow them to internet/analyze this information in
ays the puli a’t reading newspapers from different cultures/in different
language and analyzing how different cultures/religions would interpret and respond to
the information
Closed/Secret source information: information that is classified/not open to public
iforatio gleaed ia espioage, eyes-oly iforatio a’t e reorded or ritte don)
o Contains countless levels of clearance
Analysis: critically breaking down and putting together pieces of intelligence
o Based on training Kislenko has a background in history, especially US, therefore
would analyze new information based on its historical context
o Must be free/aware of biases
o Must be in a civil society contexts like Nazi Germany, North Korea, China, ISIS can
create perilous situations for intelligence agents, wherein they might lie to their
superiors in order to avoid danger
o Bad analysis can be the downfall of an agency/society Nazis, Soviets
The Intelligence Cycle
Planning & Direction
Collection
Analysis
Dissemination
Feedback
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Planning: directed by the public! Policy makers/intelligence agencies act in whatever way keeps
them in power
o Since agencies in civil societies are much more transparent than agencies in other
societies, we have knowledge and respond to their decisions
o In other societies, planning may be directed by dictators or military
Collection: gathering of information by intelligence agencies from both open and closed sources
Analysis: breaking down/processing of information, extracting meaning and possible responses
Dissemination: delivery of information to the consumer (the individual(s) who will act on the
intelligence) usually the cabinet minister in charge of that department
o Can be problematic, as cabinet minister is an elected official, not necessarily someone
with a background in intelligence, or foreign policy, or terrorism, or crisis management,
or ethis, or politis
Feedback: responses to the decisions that are made (from the agency, other governing officials,
public)
The Intelligence Revolution
In less than 100 years, almost all countries have gone from no intelligence agencies, to
numerous ones with enormous funding
“oiety a’t ee futio ith itelligee o
Themes include -
o Fiction: the spy world in movies and books and TV shows is entirely false
The real world is so much more interesting!!
The fictional spy world still influences society more than reality
People believe it, are impacted by it; it draws interest and support
Goeret do’t id – if people believe that they are under threat, they’ll e
happy to support intelligence agencies
o Fiction leads to fact: governments and agencies respond to the beliefs of the society
If a large part of soiety eliees e’re eig iaded y alies, petitios for
protection from the aliens, and threatens to knock elected officials out of power
if they do’t respod…the proesses ad ifrastruture ill e put i plae to
protect the people from the aliens, regardless of whether there are aliens or not
o Agencies appear and develop based on the time and place in which they live
Intelligence responds to context
o Technology is key: intelligence agencies drive the development of technology
Microwaves, cell phones, internet, computers
o Politial ulture is key: soiety’s opiio o politis ditates how agencies function
Nazi Germany vs. modern Canada
o National security paradigms based on nation state are a thing of the past
Globalization; things are almost entirely international now
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