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Final

HST702 Final: CHST702 – First World War

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Department
History
Course Code
HST 702
Professor
Steven Bunn

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CHST702 – First World War
The Home Front
The home front as offense:
oHuman resources
Enlistment/conscription
Material support for war effort
oArms productions
oPopular support for the war effort
oCritical role of women
The home front as defense
oInternment of “enemy aliens”
oPopulation transfers of ethnic minorities
The Canadian Home Front
Canadian exports quadruple, 1914-1919
Steel, weapons, food, clothing, footwear
30,000 women in “non-traditional” jobs
Canadians generate two billion dollars in war bonds
Propaganda
Britain
oWar Propaganda Bureau (WPB), 1914
oMinistry of Information, 1917
oNo official British propaganda office when Great Britain entered the
war on August 4th, 1914
USA
oCommittee for Public Information, 1917
Propaganda as a part of “total war”
Gender and popular support for enlistment
Men enlisted due to propaganda
If they don’t enlist, its embarrassing and considered as a coward person
oEx: if your future children asks you what you did in the Great War and
you can’t say anything to them because you didn’t go = embarrassing
White Feather Campaign
Admiral Charles Fitzgerald establishes the “Order of the White Feather”, 1914
Stated goal is to mobilize women to shame men into joining Kitchener’s “New
Army”
Supported and administered by both pro and anti-suffrage women’s groups
Continues throughout the war, spreads to Canada, USA, Australia, and New
Zealand
If you’re given a white feather, you’re considered as coward because if you’re not
in war, what are you exactly doing for the country
“The White Feather campaign … called on women to send their men to war …
recruiting propaganda relied heavily on patriotic appeal that welded masculinity
to military service and branded the un-enlisted civilians as a coward beneath
contempt.” – Nicoletta Gullace
Siegfried Sassoon, 1886-1967
Anti-war thinking as mental illness
A Soldier’s Declaration”, 1917
“I can no longer be a party to prolonging these sufferings for ends which I believe
to be evil and unjust”
Committed to Craigblockhart War Hospital and treated for “shell-shock”
Returned to active service in 1918
Women and Industrial Production
March 1916 – all British men age 18 to 41 conscripted into army (age limit raised
to 51 in 1918)
Women rapidly became indispensable … changing the whole balance of society in
the process
The suffragette movement and the First World War
oRepresentation of the People Act (Britain), Feb. 1918
The Armenian Genocide
Armenian nationalism and Turkish repression, 1876-1914
oHamidian Massacres, 1894-1896 and Adana Massacre, 1909
The Battle of Sarikamis, Jan. 1915
oRussia drives Ottomans from the Caucasus and Armenian volunteer units
fight for Russia
oCzar Nicholas II calls for Armenian uprising
oBritain and France also coordinating combat operations with Armenian
insurgents
oOttomans surrounded on all sides by 1915:
British forces to the West (Gallipoli)
Russian forces to the north and east (Caucasus)
British and Arab forces to the south (Mesopotamia)
oArmenian uprising in the city of Van, April 1915
Critical threat to Ottoman lines of communication with the Eastern
and Caucasus fronts
oOttoman response to the military situation of 1915:
Passage of the Tehcir law, May 1915 – all Americans in the
Ottoman Empire to be deported
Armenian men, women, and children across Turkey force-marched
into the Syrian desert
1 to 1.5 million Armenians killed, 1914-1918 (out of a pre-war
population of 1.3 to 2.0 million)
Canadian Internment
8,579 “enemy aliens” interned during WWI
Target: immigrants from Eastern Europe
o50,000 + Ukrainians interned
Canada – The War Measures Act, 1914
Britain – Defense of the Realm Act (DORA), 1914
Phrenology, eugenics and racial classification
The momentum of internment:
oEconomics – a practical solution to the problem of poverty
oMilitary/politics
oFear
oInterment shows the deep fissures that existed in Canadian society at the
time along the lines of class ethnicity
Canada’s War
Canada in Historical Context
oPre-European contact period to 1534

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Description
CHST702 – First World War The Home Front • The home front as offense: o Human resources  Enlistment/conscription  Material support for war effort o Arms productions o Popular support for the war effort o Critical role of women • The home front as defense o Internment of “enemy aliens” o Population transfers of ethnic minorities The Canadian Home Front • Canadian exports quadruple, 1914-1919 • Steel, weapons, food, clothing, footwear • 30,000 women in “non-traditional” jobs • Canadians generate two billion dollars in war bonds Propaganda • Britain o War Propaganda Bureau (WPB), 1914 o Ministry of Information, 1917 o No official British propaganda office when Great Britain entered the war on August 4 , 1914 • USA o Committee for Public Information, 1917 • Propaganda as a part of “total war” • Gender and popular support for enlistment • Men enlisted due to propaganda • If they don’t enlist, its embarrassing and considered as a coward person o Ex: if your future children asks you what you did in the Great War and you can’t say anything to them because you didn’t go = embarrassing White Feather Campaign • Admiral Charles Fitzgerald establishes the “Order of the White Feather”, 1914 • Stated goal is to mobilize women to shame men into joining Kitchener’s “New Army” • Supported and administered by both pro and anti-suffrage women’s groups • Continues throughout the war, spreads to Canada, USA,Australia, and New Zealand • If you’re given a white feather, you’re considered as coward because if you’re not in war, what are you exactly doing for the country • “The White Feather campaign … called on women to send their men to war … recruiting propaganda relied heavily on patriotic appeal that welded masculinity to military service and branded the un-enlisted civilians as a coward beneath contempt.” – Nicoletta Gullace Siegfried Sassoon, 1886-1967 • Anti-war thinking as mental illness • “A Soldier’s Declaration”, 1917 • “I can no longer be a party to prolonging these sufferings for ends which I believe to be evil and unjust” • Committed to Craigblockhart War Hospital and treated for “shell-shock” • Returned to active service in 1918 Women and Industrial Production • March 1916 – all British men age 18 to 41 conscripted into army (age limit raised to 51 in 1918) • Women rapidly became indispensable … changing the whole balance of society in the process • The suffragette movement and the First World War o Representation of the PeopleAct (Britain), Feb. 1918 TheArmenian Genocide • Armenian nationalism and Turkish repression, 1876-1914 o Hamidian Massacres, 1894-1896 andAdana Massacre, 1909 • The Battle of Sarikamis, Jan. 1915 o Russia drives Ottomans from the Caucasus andArmenian volunteer units fight for Russia o Czar Nicholas II calls forArmenian uprising o Britain and France also coordinating combat operations withArmenian insurgents o Ottomans surrounded on all sides by 1915:  British forces to the West (Gallipoli)  Russian forces to the north and east (Caucasus)  British and Arab forces to the south (Mesopotamia) o Armenian uprising in the city of Van,April 1915  Critical threat to Ottoman lines of communication with the Eastern and Caucasus fronts o Ottoman response to the military situation of 1915:  Passage of the Tehcir law, May 1915 – allAmericans in the Ottoman Empire to be deported  Armenian men, women, and children across Turkey force-marched into the Syrian desert  1 to 1.5 millionArmenians killed, 1914-1918 (out of a pre-war population of 1.3 to 2.0 million) Canadian Internment • 8,579 “enemy aliens” interned during WWI • Target: immigrants from Eastern Europe o 50,000 + Ukrainians interned • Canada – The War MeasuresAct, 1914 • Britain – Defense of the Realm Act (DORA), 1914 • Phrenology, eugenics and racial classification • The momentum of internment: o Economics – a practical solution to the problem of poverty o Military/politics o Fear o Interment shows the deep fissures that existed in Canadian society at the time along the lines of class ethnicity Canada’s War • Canada in Historical Context o Pre-European contact period to 1534 o French colonial period, 1534-1763 o Upper and Lower Canada, 1791-1841 o Canada East/Canada West, 1841-1867 o The Dominion of Canada, 1867 • Canada in the British Empire • The Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) • The Canadian Home Front in the First World War • The Canadian War Effort in Historical Perspective What was(is) a Canadian? • First Nations - 15,000-20,000 ybp • French Canadians – from 1500s • American immigrants – late 1700s • British immigrants – from 1791 • African Canadians – late 1700s • Asian Canadians – late 1800s • Eastern European immigrants – late 1800s Canada and WWI: Basic Facts • Population in 1914: approximately 8 million • Canada’s military in 1914 o Army ▯ 3,110 men o Navy ▯ only 2 ships • 600,000 soldiers mobilized, 1914-1918 • 60,000 killed and 170000 wounded • 3,000+ women in CanadianArmy Nursing Service o 47 were killed Canada and the Outbreak of War • British Empire declares war, 04August 1914 • Canadian Governor-General Prince Arthur (son of Queen Victoria) affirms declaration, 05 August 1914 st o 1 Cndadian Division arrives in Europe, 1914 o 2 Canadian Division, September 1915 o 3 Canadian Division added, December 1915 o 4 Canadian Division added,August 1916 • The “Canadian Corps” (from December 1915) Canada’s First Battles of WWI • Ypres Salient, December 1914 • Neuve Chapelle, March 1915 • 2 Ypres, 22-24April 1915 o Chlorine gas attack o 6,000+ Canadian casualties, 2000+ dead • Canadians as “the tip of the spear” of the BritishArmed Forces Canada’s War, 1916 • Sir Sam Hughes, Minister of Defence 1914-1916 • The Ross Rifle, the MacAdam Shovel • Hughes resigns, November 1916 • Canada and the Battle of the Somme o 24,000 casualties o Canadian Corps as Britain’s “Shock Troops” The Battle of Vimy Ridge, 1917 • Lieutenant-General Sir Julian Byng, Canadian Corps Commander, 1916 • GeneralArthur Currie, 1 Cdn Division o “Pay the price o victory in shells – not lives” o Takes command of Cdn Corps, July 1917 o First ever Canadian Field Commander o “The Canadian Brusilov” • TheArras Offensive, 1917 o Canada assigned to Vimy Ridge, March 1917 o All 4 divisions fight together for the first time • Vimy Ride ▯ approximately 6kn in length • The Battle Plan o Overwhelming, pinpoint artillery o Counter-Battery Operations  Andrew McNaughton  “Scientific” anti-artillery tactics o The creeping barrage o Storm trooper tactics o Meticulous planning, meticulous training • April 9-12, 1917 st o 1 wave attacks from deployment tunnels (not trenches) at 5:30am, 9April 1917 o 80% of German guns knocked out by McNaughton o Approx. 20,000 front-line troops in the attack • The Legacy o Canadian Casualties: 10,602 ▯ 3,598 killed o Vimy Ridge and the birth of the Canadian nation o The Canadian Corps as the elite troops of the BritishArmy o “Was it worth it? The answer, of course, is no.” - Pierre Berton, Canadian historian The Conscription Crisis, 1917 • French Canadians and “Britain’s War” • 500,000 troops needed, 1916-17 • Election called on 17 December 1917 over conscription issue o Union government, led by PM Robert Borden o Liberal party, led by Wilfred Laurier o Union wins slight majority • 400,000 registered under conscription • Only 24,000 sent to France The Halifax Explosion, 1917 • Collision of the Mont Blanc and Imo, 06 December 1917 • 3 kiloton explosion (atomic bomb at Hiroshima = 15 kilotons) • Over 300 acres totally obliterated • 2,000 dead, 9,000 injured • Hugh MacLennan, Barometer Rising (1941) The Canadian war effort in historical perspective • Canada emerges as an independent nation • Accelerated industrialization • Social change, social unrest The Naval War, 1917 • British naval blockade of Germany, 1914-1918 o The “turnip winter” of 1916/17 in Germany o Up to 730,000 Germans die of starvation or other effects of blockade by 1918 • German submarine warfare o The “Prize Rules,” the “Cruiser Rules” and submarine warfare o British waters declared a “war zone” by Germany, 04 February 1915 • *Britain using civilian ships to transport weapons and ammunition from North America to Europe • The sinking of the Lusitania, 07 May 1915 • 1,198 killed, including 128Americans • Notable Passengers: o Mary and Laura Ryerson (sister-in-law/niece of Egerton Ryerson), Toronto o Josephine Eaton Burnside (daughter of Timothy Eaton), Toronto o Alfred Vanderbilt, great-grandson of Cornelius Vanderbilt • War zone declaration lifted due toAmerican protest, 30August 1915 • The indecisive Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916 • Unrestricted submarine warfare declared, 01 February 1917 TheAmerican View of WWI • Woodrow Wilson and American isolationism o Continuing naval rivalry with Britain • Wilson re-elected, November 1916: o “He kept us out of the war” • Wilson’s “peace note” of 19 November 1916: o Asks belligerent nations to state their terms o Germany replies that victory is certain o Britain demands dissolution of all enemy empires TheAmerican Declaration of War • The Zimmerman Telegram, 16 January 1917 o Sent to German Embassy in USA for covert transmission to Mexican government o Immediately decoded by the British due to electronic surveillance of American cable traffic o Wilson informed 24 February 1917, after Britain invents a cover story • USA declares war on Central Powers, 05April 1917 US President Woodrow Wilson • WWI as a war to “make the world safe for democracy” • WWI as “a war to end all wars” World-famous mathematician Bertrand Russell, 1907 • Convicted under DORA in 1916 for protesting against the war • Fired from Cambridge, 1916 • Fined for protestingAmerican involvement in the war, 1917 • Jailed for anti-war activities, 1918 • “To advocate democracy by war is only to repeat the error of those who have sought it hitherto by the assassin's knife” – Russel, 1915 1917: Mutiny, Riot, Revolution, and Collapse • France o Joseph Joffre replaced by Robert Nivelle, 1916 o The Nivelle Offensive, 16April 1917 o Medical staff prepared for 10,000 casualties o French army takes 317,000 casualties o Mutiny in the FrenchArmy, May 1917 o Nivelle replaced by Marshal Philippe Pétain (the “Hero of Verdun”), May 1917 • Russia o Human Agency Re-visited: The strange case of Grigori Rasputin o Russian mystic from inner Siberia o Summoned in 1908 to healAlexei, beloved hemophiliac son of Tzar Nicholas II and TzarinaAlexandra o By 1914, a trusted adviser to the Romanov family o Advises Nicholas II not to enter the war in 1914, thereby gaining many powerful enemies among the Russian elite • Rasputin convinces Tzar Nicholas II to take personal command of Russian armed forces • Nicholas departs Imperial Palace, leaves for the front, 23August 1915 • Rasputin becomes de facto Tzar, ruling via influence over TzarinaAlexandra • Rasputin’s sordid past combined with his many enemies in the Russian government leads to widespread rumours of a sexual affair with the Tzarina TheAssassination of Rasputin: The “Official Story” • 12 July 1914 – Rasputin knifed/disemboweled in an assassination attempt, but miraculously survives • Russian government/Russian and British military conspire to assassinate Rasputin after the failure to follow up the Brusilov offensive • 16 December 1916 - Rasputin (possibly) poisoned with a large amount of cyanide, but has no effect • When poison fails to take effect, Rasputin shot in chest and back by Felix Yusupov (Russian aristocrat, husband of the Tzarina’s niece) • Rasputin “comes back to life,” lunges at Yusupov, and runs out the door • Yusupov shoots Rasputin two more times, then bashes his head in with a club • Rasputin tied up, wrapped in a bag and thrown through the ice into a river • Apparently escaped and made it to the banks of the river, where his body was found • Rasputin’s body “sits up” while being cremated TheAssassination of Rasputin: New Evidence • Autopsy indicates Rasputin killed by a bullet to the head, fired by a British handgun • British secret service agent Oswald Rayner, an old friend/classmate of Yusop
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