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Ryerson University
HIS 106
Jennifer Hubbard

HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change TUES SEPT 4 – Warfare in Primitive Societies MYTH #1 – Myth of Progress - primeval human state = ignorant, brutal, miserable, violent - life then was “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” - Thomas Hobbes  embraced strongly by other philosophers during Enlightenment  we do not need to be in a constant state of warfare MYTH #2 – The Myth of Natural Man - Jean Jacques Rousseau  believed organized state is responsible for warfare Myth b/c  purpose of technology is not always for warfare  humans have turned everything into being warfare-related THEME 1: Warfare affects social + technological change  warfare is a means of transferring technology  (ex. secret weapon is only secret until it is used; then it becomes common)  technologies flowed largely from China (ex. gunpowder) THEME 2: Transfer requires prepared ground (?) South/Central America - more advanced civilization than North American indigenous population - widespread intermarriage b/w indigenous and colonists - sharing of goods - flow in both directions North America - lots of killing - colonists did not cooperate with Native Americans - not same survival of indigenous population as in South America Material Culture  everyday objects available to a society How Warfare Facilitated the Transfer of Technology - paper-making (invented in China) - papyrus used in Egypt - parchment used the West (made from animal hide)  very expensive - problem with first paper invented in China was that they wrote with brushes (therefore paper was too thin for use in the West where quill was used) - improvements were made to the first kind of paper somewhere in Middle East area Paper - storage of knowledge HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change - allowed for knowledge to be easily spread - Printing Press (also first invented in China) = most important invention of this millennia MYTH #5 – Warfare selects for superior weapons & techniques to increase wins in battle False b/c … Primary Effect of War = DESTRUCTION Warfare in itself is not CONSTRUCTIVE  ex. In Papua New Guinea some tribes still fight with same primitive weapons they have always used  have not advanced  Socio-economic, NOT military encounters determine new military techniques (Part of humanity; has changed course of history) Warfare & Primitive Societies ‘Peaceful Societies with HIGH homicide rate - ex. Copper Eskimo (Inuit) – Canada Evidence of Warfare in Prehistoric Tribes - mass burials dated back to 24,000 – 34,000 years ago Primitive Warfare - loosely organized - no specialized warriors/soldiers in primitive societies Forms of Combat (Primitive + Ancient) 1) Battles 2) Raids/Ambushes  guerilla warfare (modern times) 3) Massacres BATTLE - two sides in conflict to agree ahead of time to meet in a pre-determined location - rather than moving, they remain in this area + try to resolve conflict  Primitive tribes would challenge each other What if the script is not followed? Example: Napoleonic Wars  Russians retreated back; Napoleon’s army followed however did not survive cold Russian winter Primitive vs. Modern Battles HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change Irrational Features of Battle - psychological warfare - primitive warriors painted/tattooed themselves or wore special costumes (showed which side you were on)  some weapons acceptable, some not (ex. chemical weapons, certain kinds of bullets) Irrationality: Good vs. Bad Weapons Casualties - 37 million soldiers killed (WW1 + WW2) - (these deaths were dwarfed by deaths through the hands of own government) Worse than warfare = TOTALITARIAN governments (USSR, Communist China, Nazi Germany)  used wars to get rid of people they did not want (Jews, Slavic people) FRI SEPT 7 th Casualty Rates - Why does modern warfare with its deadlier weapon not have a higher casualty rate? - Germans = first to acquire machine guns War Medicine - Wounded primitive warriors got better medical treatment than “civilized” soldiers - Herbs  antibiotic effects - Primitive warfare – women & shamans would treat wounded soldiers - Wounds were cleaned and herbs were applied Western Horrors - Battle surgeons favoured amputating wounded limbs - Many people stayed away from doctors fearing that what they would do would be worse than letting the wound heal on its own - No general anesthetic until 1840s - Only advantage = western doctors knew how to stop bleeding from major arteries and veins (would burn arteries so that burnt ends could join together and stop bleeding) Western Medicine - No concept of infection or sterilization - Dirty bandages, surgical instruments - Treatment for war-related illness & fever: bloodletting, purgatives, emetics, laxatives Causes of Warfare - Do not really change over time (current similar to prehistoric) - PREHISTORIC & TRIBAL HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change - Revenge for homicides - Thefts of goods - Marriage agreements gone awry b/w members of different tribes - If no agreements WAR - Famine + need for food - Need to expand territory due to expanding population - Climate change (always an issue) - Drought - Labour shortages + need for slaves - Monopolistic practices by a tribe or nation controlling a necessary commodity - SALT seeps, hard STONE for weapons, OIL (rare commodities) - Desire for prestige or self-aggrandizement (glory, respect, ego) on the part of strong tribal leaders or state rulers - Expanding frontiers into territory of other tribes – leads to resistance - Examples: Roman Empire vs. Jews, Persians, Gauls, Scots Attitudes Towards Warfare - War is hated; peace is preferred in virtually all cultures - Even most war-like societies (ie. Ancient Greeks) viewed their war heroes with mixed feelings - Spiritually contaminated - Often not rewarded with riches or status - Chinese viewed soldiers as being vile (b/c do something destructive) So Why Conduct Warfare? 1) Costs of peace are too great in some cases  People have little to lose; much to gain 2) Young men = most aggressive in initiating + conducting warfare 3) War may be more profitable than peace  Societies experience great difficulty in establishing and maintaining peace with equals From Primitive to Civilized Warfare Fortifications (moats, forts, walls, trenches, barbed wire) - Costliest, largest-scale pieces of pre-industrial technology - (Tells you about that particular society) - Require a huge work force - Rarely built in egalitarian societies - Require attackers to scale walls or tear them down - Protect property, farms, produce, people - Some walls have elevated platforms - States, civilization, and societies which have not built fortifications are RARE - Example: Chinchorro in Chico Norte region of Peru (5000-3200 BC) HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change Four Kinds of Fortification - Settlements - Refuges - Elite residences (castles) - Military fortresses Others - Walls on defensive borders: Great Wall of China, Hadrian’s Wall, West Bank Barrier Primitive vs. Early Modern Weapons - Primitive weapons remained more effective sometimes than hand guns until end of 19 century - A lot of modern weapons did not reach their targets - Capability to improve modern weapons to make them more effective Bronze Age - Availability of copper smelting  earliest evidence comes from Serbia in 6000 BC - Copper smelting invented in different locations (separate inventions) in Asia and Europe; later South America - Earliest smelting done in modified pottery kilns - Pottery first fired by Jomon of Japan 13,000 BC - Mesopotamians figured out how to fire pottery Copper Trade - Copper use spread far from early mines and smelting - Most copper came from modern Europe - King Solomon – large copper mine - Rare commodity - Otzi the Iceman (3300 BC) – had Mondsee copper axe Copper to Bronze - Too soft to make durable weapons - Tin was best alloy to mix it with (from England) - Bronze holds better edge - Arsenic = toxic - Tin – very rare Energy for Warfare - Main source of energy for warfare in prehistoric + ancient times - Human energy - Horses, oxen (before horses) - Oxen pulled earliest wheeled cart 2500 BC in Mesopotamia - Everybody supplied with same stuff = egalitarian - With horses – they need rest, expensive, have to be trained - More obvious choice = horses TUES SEPT. 11 HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change The Horse & the Chariot - light chariot invented 2500 BC - horses domesticated in Asia 4000-3500 BC - Ukraine + Kazakhstan - Central Asians learned to ride horses and use them in warfare around 3000 BC - Use of domesticated horses spread to Europe + Middle East - Early horse chariots date from 2100 BC War Chariot - Improved wheel + harness design 1600 BC - Spoked wheels, fixed axles - Limitations for chariots  smooth terrain required - Building + maintaining chariots required skilled craftsmen; expensive - Gave rise to warrior aristocracies Mobility + Archery - if fighting against army, army would be packed together  easy target - if people tried to flee you could attack Iron Age - requires much higher temp to smelt it - more common than tin + copper used to make bronze - advantage: once technology was developed  iron furnaces invented in 1300BC - quick spread around the world b/c iron is readily available - when iron ore heated, iron separates out and solidifies = very pure - furnaces invented in Ancient Near East – Mesopotamia Hard Iron - smelted iron = spongy - technique to reduce impurities - repeatedly hammered + reheated to expel slag - forged into desired shape - hammering + drawing out iron added strength Uses - tools, cooking pots, weapons (desire for weapons drove iron age) - repeated heating made iron many times harder - invented steel (lightly carburized) Why Iron Replaced Bronze? - piracy by Sea People disrupted trade - west, tin became harder to purchase - iron remained expensive  was recycled - more efficient made higher-carbon steel - first true steel weapons in China Prehistoric to Medieval Warfare [Similarities + Changes] - weapons same, materials changed - most elements of battlefield warfare present by 600BC that would dominate warfare for next 2000 years - all cultures used similar weapons - raw materials remained the same HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change - human energy remained fundamental - changes = specialization in warriors Specialization - [Middle East, Europe, China] - Cavalry (soldiers on horseback) – after 600 B.C. - More economical  no separate driver needed like in chariot - More mobile than chariots 3. Warfare & Social Structures in Ancient Civilizations - PERSIA – autocratic, narrowly ruled hierarchical society – like Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria - GREECE – Sparta + Athens - CARTHAGE (Phoenician) - ROME Are societies shaped by warfare?  conflicts as a result of warfare  how warfare affects standard of living, quality of life Do societies’ primary organization arise due to military considerations?  in the past yes, but not in the present  state education arose due to need for educated officers  military roots Persian Empire + Military - having a large empire generates a lot of wealth - government uses that wealth to build a large, professional army - empire building for glory (not strategy) - strong leader to successfully conduct battles - ruler is present in battle; if killed, empire/society would crumble - ie. Alexander the Great - organized and trained infantry Cyrus the Great (576 – 530 BC) - founded Persian Empire - led rebellion against Babylon - Expansion for Sake of GLORY - Killed in battle in 530 BC Persian Empire - built roads (Royal Road extended 1700 miles) - allowed for more convenient trade - garrisons at strategic points on rivers Multicultural Persia - Cyrus respected local religions, cultures - Multicultural army  different beliefs, language barriers, not same loyalty to ruler HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change Persian Battle - Persian army relied on SIZE - Strategy = to isolate generals from soldiers - No commander, army cannot operate without a line of command (soldiers easily disoriented) Greek Society + Warfare - retook Persian territory - their culture enabled them to overtake Persia  freedom-loving + loved war - Greek civilization unified by language, alphabetic writing, culture - Lived in city-states (Polis): each was independent and often fought - The poleis were founded by warrior-landowners - Ordinary farmers were small landowners - Each farmer who owned land was expected to defend/fight for their polis - Wars due to revenge, cattle-raids, food Early Greek Warfare - most campaigns lasted 3 days total - battles were brief, bloody, limited maneuvers - Greeks fought for slaves, territory  slavery is a major cause for warfare Greek Military - PHALANX formation Hoplite Warfare - relatively cheap - citizen army of militia; passionate for city-states - armour no longer buried with dead - durable armour of wood, leather, bronze was passed down and repaired for generations - battles fought on flat ground Democracy in Phalanx, subjugation in city-state - hoplites made decisions together in warfare - equal warriors, no distinction - equality + freedom led to desire to run poleis SPARTA: War-based Society - people having to get permission to leave (modern communist, totalitarian state)  ie. Soviet Union ATHENS - no less war based but had more to it - what Athens had that was unique was direct democracy - b/c of the freedom of speech + politics people had a freedom to do what they wanted to do HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change - evolve as a society in other fields  arts, literature, philosophy, learning  Sparta and Athens are equally products of their military societies THE PERSIAN WARS (499-479 BC) - Persia was expanding, decided wanted Greek city-states (annexed them) Aftermath of Persian War - Athens built Delian League (navy) to protect Ionian Sea, built pantheon (all helped lead to Pelopenisseian war FRIDAY SEPT 14 th WARFARE & SOCIAL STRUCTURE II Hannibal (Carthage) vs. Rome - Punic Wars: three conflicts b/w Rome + Carthage - Carthage founded in 813 BC by Phoenicians - Phoenicians  merchants + traders, excellent sea-farers - Extended trade routes (metal) - Semitic people (belonged to same racial background as Jews) - Invented partial alphabet - Built colonies around the Mediterranean Carthage and its Empire Conflict with Greeks in Sicily th - 5 century B.C.  Carthage + Greek colonies of Sicily came into conflict First Punic War - Carthaginians had a much more superior fleet than Romans - Romans had a lot of manpower - Rome saw important of having a navy; built their own fleet to surpass Carthage’s Roman Republic - based constitution on Athenian ideas - influenced by Athenian colonies on Italian peninsula - several hundred leading Roman families (patricians) ruled - res = rule, publica = public Roman Government - primary considerations = military service Problem for Plebeians - citizens, not aristocrats HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change - ordinary people: farmers, tradesmen, shop-keepers, lower classes - excluded from government but expected to serve the city state - 5 century  debt slavery a big problem - Plebs creates College of Tribunes - Elected Tribunes of the Plebs as leaders - Dedicated themselves to Ceres (harvest goddess) - Still had no say in government Council of the Plebs - Plebs demanded political recognition - Go on an army strike (refuse to defend Rome) - Patrician power reduced, plebeian power increased Cohesive Roman Society + Army - Dual system of government let rich + poor citizens work in a common cause Roman Battle Formations - started off with Greek phalanx  but left too many men in middle unable to fight - arranged maniples in a checkerboard - gaps separated each maniple + pattern alternated Republic & Empire so many killed romans were forced to draft adolescents scipio invaded Africa via carthage zuma cavalry – sciliy trained (volunteers) Hannibal turned to Africa Hannibal had much more than scipio unusual perpendic formations elephants hate noise elephants broke ranks but terrified ran back on own lines 3rd Punic War Carthaginians defeated roman were dominated in ships romans feared carthage was going to take over again seize of carthage- survivors=slaves WARFARE AT SEA IN ANCIENT SOCIETES Egypt=1st large boats woven reeds transport stones international trade Queen Hatshepsut sea going ships to punt 1st military use HIS 106 – Technology, Warfare & Social Change invasion of Palestine Thutmose=piracy Greek ships sea people=trade and piracy maritime civil greeks and Phoenicians trade and passengers merchant ships wind pwer war ships – galley slender and longer oars and rowers; sail rowers were warriors used bronze rams- VERY expensive early sea battles medit archers and jaevel 1st hooks to hold close stormed each other boats greek battles: long ram- create holes Biremes penteconters standard in greek navy trireme- BEST Olympias reconstruction of ancient Athenian trireme in Piraeus no discriptions of how triremes are used/built only long ram from here Sea trials – Olympias Powering war ships B of Salamis- Athens few were slaves until Peloponnesian war oarsmen fishermen and poor citizens (paid at end) gave poor more political adv became highliy trained no longer needed property to participate in Athenian democracy B of Salamis persia built huge navy after marathon defeat Xerxes greeks lucky 600 ships destroyed in storm just befo
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