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The Enlightenment.docx

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HST 111
Maria Piccioni

The Enlightenment: Voltaire and Rousseau Reform movement led by the philosophes- Bayle, Diderot - Centered in France- problems with government, economy, and society (Louis XIV, absolutism, Taxation) - Education and knowledge to eliminate the “evils” of society – church VOLTAIRE – anti- French – critical of french government, bureaucracy, and church - “Philosophical Letters” Although he was condemned his own periods, Voltaire did see/admire certain the aspects of the past - 1751, The Age of Louis XIV – the age of Louis was one of the Four great periods of humankind; one-Athenian Greece, two- Roman Empire, three- Italian Renaissance, four- Age of Louis XIV; for Voltaire, what defined greatness of a society/civilization was culture and developments therefore. In all of this works, VOLTAIRE attempted to reveal what he believe to be the “evils” of French/European society - Voltaire’s most famous work CANDIDE (1759) – attacked war, religion, religious persecution, governments – Catholicism – Catholic Church - Philosophical Dictionary (1764) – Voltaire complained that Christianity could and did lead to fanaticism – crimes in the name of religion – intolerance of the Reformation and subsequent Religious Wars Voltaire did believe that reform and the betterment of society, specifically in France was possible - When and how would this be achieved? How long would it last? Voltaire’s works, along with those of the other philosophes, would be influential in subsequent developments in France Many of the philosophes believed
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