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Final Exam Review.doc

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HST 325
Conor Burns

Sy Greenberg HST325 – Dec 4 2012 Final Exam Review: Major Figures: Aristotle: Empirical Approach – individuals matter –interest in material change and causes of change. Distinction between Matter – and secondary qualities (give form to matter) Comprehensive system combines: Methodology: rules for studying nature – 4 modes of causation – material, formal, efficient, final. Final is the most important Cosmology – linked to matter theory – 4 elements, fire, water, air, earth Matter Theory Theories of Place and Motion – natural (ex. Gravity) vs violent motion (ex projectile) Rules for Presentation and Argument (Logic) – ways of achieving certainty Ptolemy: renowned mathematician at his time - synthesized several astronomical elements. Key works: Mathematical Syntaxis, Planetary Hypotheses – how to address deficiencies of Aristotle’s system while preserving uniform circular motion. Eccentric: center of planets orbit is offset from the Earth (accounts for basic apparent variations of speed and brightness) Epicycle on Deference Epicycle: secondary orbit centered on deferent. Causes retrograde Equant: point distinct from Earth and Center of Orbit. Planets move uniformly with Equant. Hippocrates and Galen: Galen: Philisophical Medicine Hippocrates: Humoural theory of health – health is balance of 4 humors of body – blood, flegm, black bile, yellow bile Aquinas: Faith first, but reason is provided by God. Duty to God to use reason to investigate nature. Roger Bacon: Franciscan Monk – Experiment – systematic testing of claims against experience. Work on Optics – Transmission of images to the eyes. Had issues of Religion vs Science due to walking on a thin line between the two. Gutenberg: Created the moveable printing press – screw press, paper, moveable type. Between 1450-1500 – more books then previous 1000 years – 1000 printers in Europe Sy Greenberg HST325 – Dec 4 2012 Medici Family: Key players in the Patronage System – one of the wealthiest families in Florence. Vesalius: Lecturer in surgery and anatomy – University of Padua. Had humanist attitudes in medicine. Greatly benefited by print and visual representation Copernicus: Astronomer – calendar reform His theories – No single center of all heavenly motion, Earth revolves around the sun – it is a planet, just like the others – planets all go around the sun, distance to stars immeasurably vast, Earth rotates on its axis (daily), Has more than one motion (daily, annual, seasonal), retrograde due to Earths motions. De Rev was placed the list of banned books by the Church in 1616 Galileo: Patron of the Medici Family – becomes Copernican in 1595. Uses telescope in order to study astronomy. Releases the Starry messenger – leads anti Aristotelian campaign – Mathematics as language of nature – ends up in trouble with the Holy Office. Was “silenced” but still released (secretly) new book Tycho Brahe: Danish Astronomer/Mathematician – Patronage of King Frederick II/ Geo-Heliocentric System – all planets revolve around the sun, which revolves around the earth Kepler: German Astronomer/Mathematician – fully committed to Copernican Theory – becomes assistant to Brahe. Three Laws: Planets move in Ellipse with the sun at one focus, Planets sweep out equal areas in equal times, Mathematic relation between planets distance from sun and period time p^2 = d^3 Rene Descartes: response to “skeptical crisis”: doubt eve
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