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HST325 - History of Science and Technology I - Midterm 1 Prep

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Ryerson University
HST 325
Conor Burns

Understanding the rise of ancient Civilizations Urban revolution Hint Technology Systems Ancient Civilizations began to rise when large scaled hydraulic projects were introduced because of agriculture also known as the Hydraulic Hypothesis This means there is a link between the rise of early civilization and Hydraulic productsHierarchal politic systems grew to help with large scaled hydraulic projects and to help coordinate workers and distribute suppliesThey also mastered bronze metallurgy Bronze Age which was used to help create jewellery tools and weapons This lead to more trade and specialization of labor ie craft production beer brewing These civilizations also used new sources of energy such as wind power boats ox plow horse and wheeled cart camelAlso created during the time of the Urban Revolution were Writing development in MathematicsPlace systemsexigesimal sophisticated astronomy highly accurate calendars Babylonians and high scaled scale architecturalconstruction projects like pyramids EngineeringNote China Mesopotamia and Egypt Irrigation civilization developed similarly adapt to environment via agriculture it helped them having warmer climates to grow crops fasterRestricted space so when warfare occurs defeated cannot move like before thus they slaves work farms More people fed but coordination is needed for distribution of food water and slaves by politics Hydraulic Systems Bronze Metallurgy Agriculture Revolution in Europe Mathematics In 6001000 AD the Europeans had created new agriculture techniques and energy sources whichincreased its population by 30 known as the Agriculture revolutionThese innovations led to more food At first they used 23 oxen but major change came when they began using heavy plow 8 oxen this allowed heavier richer land soil to be cultivated for farmingAt this time substitution of horse for ox as draft animal horses could move faster and for longer periods of time than oxen One major agricultural innovation included development of a 3field rotation system for planting crops production went from 33 to 50 as opposed to 2 field system Most farmers could not get 8 oxen so people began to help each out known as communal agriculture Communal agriculture grew and thus medieval villages had a form of collective ownership Since horses began being used for labor important buildings began to get built Cathedral building universities Not only were there Agriculture developments but there were also technical developments such as the stirrup Chinese men would not have to get off the horse to fight New energy sources also include increased use of waterwheels and windmills helped power sawmills thflour mills etc and this increased agricultural and material production By 14 century there is rise in use of military technologies adoption of gunpowder manufacturing of guns musket introduced in 1550s and cannons meant decline of knight in shining armor Military technology greatly financed by state or royal treasuriesNote Land is scarce and precious commodity WoodEurope began importing crops from new world like potatoes corn Villagers accustomed to technologyHeavy Plow plague between 134748 wiped out 13 of population Rotation System domestication of animals
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