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HST325 - History of Science and Technology I - Midterm Prep (Everything you need to know!!)

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HST 325
Conor Burns

Natural Philosophy - term applied to the study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. It is considered to be the precursor of natural sciences such as physics.  Investigation of change in material world  Interest in material causation  Legitimate Area of rational inquiry specifically devoted to the study of natural causation in the natural world  the attempt to understand and explain the workings of the natural world Early Civilizations - Urban Revolution – 6000 years ago - Where? At least six different centers around the world: Mesopotamia (after 3500 BC); Egypt (after 3400 BC); Indus River Valley (after 2500 BC); Yellow River in China (after 1800 BC); Mesoamerica (500 BC); South America (after 300 BC) Aristotle (384 – 322)  influenced future generations – dominate scientific traditions from late antiquity, middle ages and Renaissance  Wrote extensively on all fields and effectively synthesized his findings: logic, rhetoric, physics, anatomy, cosmology, ethics, psychology, etc…  theoretical research with little practical value even though he discussed subjects like anatomy and biology  relationship between science and technology:  “when everything *practical+ had been already provided, those sciences were discovered which deal neither with necessities nor with the enjoyment of life, and this took place earliest in regions where men had leisure”  studied under Plato for 20 years, tutored Alexander the Great, formed own school called Lyceum  Coherent system (All his work is related to one system) o Terrestrial Change -> Cosmology  Reacting against o Super natural o Socratic/platonic idealist philosophy  Believes in existence of realm of ideal forms Doctrine of Elements –Reducing nature to simpler components  Makes clear distinction between terrestrial and celestial realms o Terrestrial: Air, Water, Earth Fire o Celestial Realms: Ether  which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies (stars and planets).  each element made up of two pairs of qualities: hot, cold, wet, dry o earth (cold and dry); air (wet and hot); fire (dry and hot); water (wet and cold) Doctrine of Place and Motion  Natural motion -> Dropping an object -> downward -> seeking natural seeking place at the center of the earth/universe  Violent motion -> throwing an object o External mover – violation of natural matter o violent motion – flight of arrow – requires external mover that is constant contact with object  with arrow case, mover is medium (air) o Motion (Especially natural motion) -> speed of object is proportional to weight. falling bodies – force proportional to weight – heavy objects fall faster o Difference? Natural motions were those motions that objects naturally did: objects on earth fell towards the center of the earth. Violent motion is when an object goes against its natural way like someone picking up a rock or shooting an arrow.  celestial world (world above moon): unchanging, perfect, circular motion o Matter in celestial realm was perfect and that its inherent natural motion was also perfect, traveling in a uniform and immutable circle, which was the perfect geometric figure Cosmology  earth is at center of universe; unmoving  physics relates to astronomy; makes common sense (we don’t sense any movement, ball thrown up does not appear to fall behind)  world set in motion by Prime Mover  useful and acceptable in Judaism, Christian and Islamic theology The cosmos is then made of a central earth (which he accepted as spherical) surrounded by the moon, sun and stars all moving in circles around it. Note the strange idea that all celestial bodies are perfect, yet they must circle the imperfect Earth. The initial motion of these spheres was caused by the action of a ``prime mover'' which (who?) acts on the outermost sphere of the fixed stars; the motion then trickles down to the other spheres through a dragging force. Aristotle also addresses the question whether this world is unique or not; he argues that it is unique. The argument goes as follows: earth (the substance) moves naturally to the center, if there world is not unique there ought to be at least two centers, but then, how can earth know to which of the two centers to go? But since ``earthy'' objects have no trouble deciding how to move, he concludes that there can only be one center (the Earth) circled endlessly by all heavenly bodies Theory of explanation  User of logic in formulating statements/order of reasoning o Syllogism – Method of verifying reliability 1. All men are mortal 2. Socrates is a man 3. Therefore Socrates is mortal o Casual explanation – 4 modes of causation  To understand (analyze) change 1. Material Cause – Matter it is made of o Describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood, and the material cause of a car is rubber and steel. It is not about action. It does not mean one domino knocks over another domino. 2. Formal – “Shape” the marble becomes (The plan) o tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. Plainly put the formal cause according to which a statue or a domino, is made is the idea existing in the first place as exemplar in the mind of the sculptor, and in the second place as intrinsic, determining cause, embodied in the matter. Formal cause could only refer to the essential quality of causation. A more simple example of the formal cause is the blueprint or plan that one has before making or causing a human made object to exist 3. Efficient – Activity o which immediately sets the thing in motion 4. Final – Purpose/goal o for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve, or it is that from which and that to which the change is. This also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition, need, motivation or motives, rational, irrational, ethical, and all that gives purpose to behavior. Example: Stone wall around a garden  Material Cause: Stone and Mortar  Formal: plans and drawings in order to know how much stone is required to build it like a 30 meter high wall with a 20 centimeter base wide  Efficient: stone mason  Final: reason to build the wall, to keep the neighbor’s goat out of the garden Teleology – the study of ends, purposes, and goals  The idea that natural phenomena are determined not only by mechanical causes but by an overall design or purpose in nature. o Aristotle's thought is consistently teleological: everything is always changing and moving, and has some aim, goal or purpose o Aristotle believed that things in nature occur because they serve a purpose. He maintains that organisms develop as they do because they have a natural goal  determining the use or purpose for something in nature.  Teleogical explanation -> in terms (final) purpose Ptolemy (87 – 150 AD)  Claudius Ptolemaeus - Astronomy (Almagest) - Geography (Geographia) - Mathematics (Trigonometry) - Astrology Geocentric - worldview of the universe is the superseded theory that the Earth is the center of the universe and other objects go around it. Belief in this system was common in ancient Greece. It was embraced by both Aristotle and Ptolemy, and most Ancient Greek philosophers assumed that the Sun, Moon, stars, and naked eye planets circle the Earth. Similarity:  The first observation is that the stars, sun, and planets appear to revolve around the Earth each day, with the stars circling around the pole and those stars nearer the equator rising and setting [2] each day and circling back to their rising point. ; the second is the common sense perception that the Earth is solid and stable it is not moving—but is at rest. Difference: Retrograde Motion:  Many seemed to slow down and eventually loop backwards for a time before continuing their east to west movement  Number of the planets seemed to move at different speed in different parts of their orbits, while other bodies, such as the fixed stars and moon, moved in a very regular pattern  Caused practical problems: Horoscope, navigation, and telling time (Precise knowledge necessary) Eccentric  Account for apparent variations in speed & brightness of certain planets around earth  Centre of planet’s orbit (axis perfect) offset from earth (Earth not at exact center)  By moving the orbit away from the centre of the earth, eccentric replicated the observed non- uniform motion while allowing the planet to follow a perfect circular orbit in uniform motion  Eccentric did not solve all problems Epicycle  A small orbit centered on a larger orbit or deferent  This fix neatly accounted for retrograde motion  Epicycles could be added to epicycles and combined with the eccentric to create more complex orbits  used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets.  In the Ptolemaic system, the planets are assumed to move in a small circle, called an epicycle, which in turn moves along a larger circle called a deferent. o The deferent was a circle centered around a point halfway between the equant and the earth. The epicycle rotated on the deferent with uniform motion, not with respect to the center, but with respect to the off-center point called the equant. The rate at which the planet moved on the epicycle was fixed such that the angle between the center of the epicycle and the planet was the same as the angle between the earth and the sun. Equant Point  Most complex device  Not at the centre of the orbit, but is displaced from it  Motion of the planet of the deferent is uniform around the Equant o This means the planets apparent motion will be faster and slower in different parts of orbit because the region swept out by the planet will not be equal  Equant = point of distinct from both earth and center of orbit Using these three geometric devices, Ptolemy was able to account for all the varied motions of the heavens and predict future celestial activities Galen  He advanced anatomy  Began medical training at 16  Surgeon to gladiators in 157 AD at Pergamum (First professional work)  At the time human dissection was forbidden, he got firsthand experience by tending to injured/dead gladiators  He saw structure of muscle and bone, sinew and intestine laid bare by violent injury and was responsible for trying to set the parts back in place when possible  Got a job as a personal doctor to Emperor Auricles  Applied philosophy to his work (causes)  most accomplished medical researcher of the Roman period. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for well over a millennium.  Galen's reputation as both physician and philosopher was legendary Writing  Writing (Sumerian cuneiform system of writing on clay tablets adopted by Babylonians), new scribal tradition  Schools developed to teach scribal (writing) skills  Originated in Mesopotamia (Iraq)  Various Early Material associated with writing: o Cuneiform - earliest known forms of written expression (Pictographs)  Documents were written on clay tablets, by means of a wedge shaped reed stylus. The impressions left by the stylus were wedge shaped, thus g
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