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Department
History
Course
HST 325
Professor
Conor Burns
Semester
Fall

Description
Final Exam Review Guide  Primary focus: material covered week 5 onwards  Know the “big picture” and should have a good grasp of the main issues  Should also have a good sense of general chronology: o What were the major scientific and technological themes and developments for each of the eras covered in class  Especially during the medieval, Renaissance, Seventeenth century eras  Review focus questions for seminar 2-3-4  Other important readings: o Friedel, Chapter 6: “Light and Time” (especially in regards to the mechanical clock o Chapter 7 “Types of Changes” (especially in regards to the printing press o Pacey, “Mathematics and the Arts: 1400 – 1600” o William Ashworth, “Christianity and the Mechanistic Universe” o Drake’s Introduction to the Galileo Reading o Lindberg, “The medieval Church Encounters the Classical Tradition” Additional Overview Help:  Major Figures: Ancient: • Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C.E): o His works shaped centuries of philosophy from Late Antiquity through the Renaissance o Writings tend to present formidable difficulties to his novice readers  Heavy use of unexplained terminology  Haphazardly organized  Refers to branches of learnings as “sciences” • Theoretical • Practical • Productive o Worldview:  World is comprised of four elements • Earth • Water • Fire • Air • Beyond surface of moon, world is comprised of Ether (fifth element)  Earth is at the center of the universe and the reason for gravity is that everything tends to reach this center  Everything around us has a substance (combination of matter and form)  Nothing is stable but subject to change: • in space (locomotion) • Quantity (growth and diminution) • Quality (alteration of form). • Occurs because every substance tends to serve a higher purpose, what it is capable of doing or becoming 1. Described as “actuality” 2. Means that there is a teleology in the Universe o Aristotle’s worldview vs. Plato’s idealism &eternal world forms  Empirical approach  individuals matter  Interest in material change and cause of change o Aristotle’s worldview  Response to problem of change : • Distinction between primary substance (matter) and secondary qualities (weight, color, etc.) that give form to matter o Aristotle’s model  Major Features: • Physical spheres – 1. 55 concentric, nested spheres in total: no void • Importance of lunar sphere 1. Division between celestial & terrestrial o Aristotle’s comprehensive system combines:  Methodology (rules for studying nature) • Doctrine of causation(explains change via four modes) 1. Material  Substance  matter from which thing is created 2. Formal  Shape  form to be realized (plan in sculptor’s mind) 3. Efficient  Action  immediate precursor to even 4. Final  Purpose  goal, end-point • Final cause is most important to Aristotle • Everything has a purpose  all processes of change  to fulfill some purpose  Cosmology • Linked to matter theory • Terrestrial: 1. Fire 2. Air 3. Water 4. Earth • Celestial 1. “ether” 2. perfection  Matter Theory  Theories of place and motion • Natural vs. violent motion 1. All motion requires a mover • All Natural motion  seek natural place according to composition 1. “mover” = purpose (final cause) 2. Earthy objects  heavy, seek center of earth 3. Why dropped objects always go down  Rate of fall proportional to weight and depends on resistance of medium • Violent motion (projectiles) 1. Requires constant external mover 2. Surrounding medium (air) takes over after release 3. No vacuum  Rules for presentation (logic) • “Syllogism” 1. All men are mortal (major premise) 2. Socrates is a man (minor premise) 3. Therefore, Socrates is mortal(conclusion) • Way of achieving certainty  persuasion • As long as the first premise is true, the rest is follows • Possible to have syllogism that is logically consistent but false • Possible of axioms: search for agreed upon first principles • Ptolemy (c. 87 – c.150 CE) o Produced material on astrology, astronomy and geography using complex mathematics and a large body of observations. o Methods of astronomical calculation in particular shaped the Western view of the heavens for more than 1000 years  In terms of accuracy observations have not been surpassed until Brahe o Ptolemy’s work on astronomy  collected in the Mathematical Syntaxis or the Almagest accomplished two things:  Mathematical model that reconciled Aristotelian cosmology with observation  Provided a comprehensive tool with tables and directions to make accurate observations  Work extended: • Hipparchus of Rhodes: 1. Made numerous precise observations of the stars and planets 2. Worked out the precision of the equinoxes 3. Measured the length of the year and the lunar month • Eudoxus 1. System of nested spheres each with a slightly different axis of rotation was a solution to the problem of retrograde motion  Retrograde motion: motion in the direction opposite to the movement of something else and the contrary of direct motion.  Additionally: a number of planets seemed to move at different speeds in different parts of their orbits • Fixed stars: regular pattern  Contradiction to the axiom of perfect circular and spherical nature of the heavens  Created a working model that resolved these problems: • Regarded model as a mathematical device allowed observers to track the movement of the celestial bodies • Ptolemaic system became synonymous with the actual structure of the heavens • To reconcile the necessity of circular motion with observed motion of the planets  introduced geometric fixes 1. Allowed for a mechanization of the products of the process of mapping the movement of celestial bodies 2. These fixes were:  Eccentric  Epicycle  Equant • Ptolemy reasoned that the problem was our perception of motion and not the planet going faster or slower  Other great work was Geographia • Applied his powerful mathematical tools and the resource of the museum to the terrestrial realm • Summarized the work of other geographers and examined aspects of cartography including various methods of projection, longitude and latitude • He: 1. Treated celestial and terrestrial globes as equivalent applying the same grid system to both 2. Divided the globe into a series of parallel belts or “climates” and developed a grid of latitude and longitude coordinates  Created a map of projection that has never been completely superseded and was of great importance to the European exploration • His mathematical geography contrasts with the earlier descriptive geography of Greek scholars such as Strabo • Distinction: Mathematical rendering (geography) vs. Terrestrial research (chorography) • Hippocrates & Galen o Became a surgeon to the gladiators at Pergamum  First professional work that allowed him to begin creating his own system of medical knowledge  particularly anatomy o At a time when human dissection was forbidden  Galen got first-hand experience of human anatomy by tending to wounded and dead gladiators. o Medical philosophy at the time was dominated by Hippocratic theory  Hippocratic system of medicine was based on the concept of regimen and balance • Regimen not only covered the physical aspects of the patient’s help but also the mental, social and spiritual.  Hippocratic doctors conducted long interviews with patients  what we call therapy  Horoscopes were casts and even Geography was considered  place where one lived reflected one’s physical/mental health  Health  correct balance of physical action, diet and lifestyle • Hippocratic theory of balance  four humors  covered four bodily fluids: 1. Phlegm from the head 2. Blood from the liver 3. Yellow bile from the stomach 4. Black bile from the stomach or intestine • Fit nicely with the Aristotelian system  Illness  unbalancing between those elements  Objective of medical intervention  to balance the four humors  Hippocratic doctors did not deal with women o At least four general groups of medical philosophy:  Rationalist  Empiricist  Methodist  Pneumatist o Galen adopted a strongly teleological philosophy in which nothing existed without a purpose and all of nature was constructed in the best possible way and for the best possible good  Demonstrated existence and perfection of the Demiurge o While extending Platonic idealism  philosophy fit well with people of the Abrahamic traditions  Practical medicine  one of the few worth keeping from the Pagan era • Vitruvius o Proportions of body o He trained in architecture and served with the engineering corps in Caesar’s army o Vitruvius joined the army of Octavian as a military engineer and was involved for the construction of aqueducts o Most famous work is the ten volumes of On Architecture  written near end of Vitruvius’ life o Regarded as the architect’s manual from the time it was written up until the middle ages o Believes that the architect needs to have studied many disciplines o Mathematics play an important role for Vitruvius  Teaches the use of rule and compasses  By optics, the light in buildings can be drawn from fixed quarters of the sky  The cost of buildings are calculated and measurements are computed by arithmetic  Difficult challenges involving symmetry are solved using geometrical theories and methods • Frontinus o Professional civil servant  One of the generals who reduced Britain to a Roman province o First job  water commissioner was to prepare maps of the system so that he could assess their condition before undertaking maintenance  Concerned with the diversion of the supply by unscrupulous farmers and tradesmen • Would insert pipes into the channel to tap supply  Made a survey of the intake and supply o Distribution  Distribution of the water depended on: • Height entering the city • Quality of water • Rate of discharge  Poor quality water  irrigation, gardens, flushing  Rich  drinking water  Intermediate quality water  used for the many baths and fountains  Frontinus criticized the practice of mixing supplies from different sources  first decision: separate waters from each system o Maintenance  Concerned by leaks in the system  esp. those in underground conduits  Aqueducts above ground  needed care to ensure masonry  kept in good condition  Essential to keep trees away from the structures o Military tactics  Also wrote theoretical treatise on military science  lost Medieval: • Nasir al-Tusi: o Outstanding Persian philosopher, scientist and mathematician o Accepted a position with the Mongols as a scientific adviser o Married a Mongol and was then put in charge of religious bequests o Contributed to the writings of the works of Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy, Autolycus and Theodosius  Also made original contributions to mathematics and astronomy • Zij-i-Ilkhani (“Ilkhan Tables”)  accurate table of planetary movements • Tadhkirah fi ‘ilm al-hay’a (“Treasury of astronomy”)  describes geometric construction producing rectilinear motion from a point on one circle rolling inside another  succeeded in reforming the Ptolemaic planetary models  producing a system in which all oribits are describes as uniform circular motion  Under his direction, Marageh sparked a revival of Islamic mathematics, astronomy, philosophy and theology • Ibn al-Shatir o Distinguished Muslim astronomer of the 14 century o Responsible for the regulation of the astronomically defined times of prayer o In his planetary models  incorporated various ingenious modifications of those of Ptolemy  Appears to have begun his work on planetary astronomy by preparing a zij, an astronomical handbook with tables  not survived  Essence of planetary theory is the apparent removal of the eccentric deferent and equant of the Ptolemaic models with secondary epicycles used instead • Not really effective o Designed and constructed a magnificent horizontal sundial that was erected on the northern minaret of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus o Wrote on the ordinary planispheric astrolabe and designed an astrolabe that he called al-ala al jami’a (the universal instrument)  Also wrote on the two most commonly used quadrants  the astrolabic an dthe trigonometric varieties  Two special quadrants that he designed were modifications of sine quadrant o Some of his works appeared in Copernicus’ writings • Ibn Sina: o Child prodigy  memorized the quran and had begun training as a physician when he was 13  also studied widely philosophy o After curing the Samanid ruler of illness  allowed to use the Royal Library in which he discovered a wider range of subjects o His skills as a physician found work at many courts but due to turbulent times, he was involved in many political struggles o Prolific writer who made a great contribution to many fields and spent the last few years finishing great works that he started in Hamadan o His books esp. Kitab al-Shifa helped fuel a drive to rediscover Aristotle • Aquinas o An Italian Dominican friar and priest and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism o Foremost classical proponent of natural theology  father of Thomismphilisophical school that arose from his legacy o Summa Theologica and Summa contra Gentiles o Model teacher for those studying priesthood o Kept prisoner by his own family in an attempts to keep him from joining the Dominicans o Believes that truth is known through reason and faith • Roger Bacon (1214 – 1292) o Master of Arts  one of the early Masters who taught Aristotle’s works on natural philosophy and metaphysics  Became an independent scholar with interest in experimental – scientific concerns  Eventually mastered most of the Greek and Arabic texts on the science of optics o Set out his own new model for a reform of the system of philosophical and theological studies  one that would incorporate language and science studies o Favored the utility of natural philosophy especially that found in Aristotle’s more practical works  argued that the comprehension of nature can aid Christianity o Supported the idea of experiment as a method of discovering things about nature o Speculations and defense of natural philosophy was not well received by the Franciscan leadership  eventually put under surveillance and imprisoned for heresy by his Order in 1277 o The discussion of Aristotelian philosophy had only indicated how important Greek philosophy had become for the intellectual community in Latin Europe Renaissance to 17 century: • Johannes Gutenberg: o Introduced moveable-type printing  revolutionizing communication  Represented the perfection and combination of a number of existing technologies  Printing has been around for many years  Combined two Asian inventions: the screw press and paper  Created typographic characters by scribing each individual letter into a hard metal (steel), then used a set of molds out of a softer letter (copper) o Project: “42 line Bible” o Printing made information more widely available o Introduction of many standard features for a print  Since people could now own many volumes (decline of cost)  could now compare one text with others  impossible in scribal age o Printing helped establish the definitive version of Greek and natural philosophy texts since several manuscripts could now be compared for most authorative version  Prevented scribal drifts • Compounding of simple errors  Scholars  concentrate on finding new knowledge as opposed to correcting old  Provided natural philosophers with paper calculational devices, public forum and republic of letter (to converse with people of similar intelligence) • Medici family: o First attained wealth and political power in the 13 century through success in commerce and banking o Beginning with Cosimo de Medicifamily support of the arts and humanities made Florence into the cradle of the Renaissance  Flowering and revival of the Classical Age o Medicis produced four popes  Genes mixed into many royal families o Patronage of the arts for many years  Last Medici died without a male heir  ended reign in the 18 century • Vesalius (1514 – 1564): o Anatomist, physician and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy  Often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy o Professor at the University of Padua and later Imperial physician at the court of Emperor Charles V o Offered the chair of Surgery and Anatomy at Padua –after graduation o Carried out dissection as the primary teaching tool handling the actual work himself o Published his Venesection letter on bloodletting in 1539  Popular treatment for almost any illness  Galen  let blood from a site near the location of the illness  Muslim and medieval practice was to let blood flow from a distant location o While in Bologna  uncovered the fact that all of Galen’s research had been based upon animal anatomy  Vesalius attempted to disprove Galen in various concepts of anatomy  dream o Fabrica contained many intricate, detailed drawings of human dissections  Skeletal system  framework of the human body • Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446) o Initially trained as a goldsmith and sculptor and enrolled in the Arte delta Seta  silk merchants’ guild  included goldsmiths, metal workers and bronze workers  designated master goldsmith later o Architect, engineer and artist of the Renaissance  Pioneer of early Renaissance architecture in Italy o First modern engineer and an innovative problem solve building his major work  dome of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Flore in Florence o Loss of Baptisery commission might account for his decision to concentrate his talents on architecture  Inspired by surroundings o Rediscovered the linear perspective  one can paint or draw using a single vanishing point toward which all lines on the same plane appear to converge and objects appear smaller as they recede in the distance o Known for building or rebuilding military fortifications • Agricola (1494 – 1555) o First to explain the refining of metals in De Re Metallica in natural philosophical terms o Humanist – trained and interested in introducing the study of metals to a scholarly audience • Copernicus (1473 – 1543) o Natural philosopher influenced by humanist ideas o Travelled as a student to Italy  learned humanist techniques and consulted original manuscripts o Most significant documents which he discovered were complete copies of Almagest  important source of alchemy at the time o Copernicus studied Ptolemy’s astronomy and compared it to medieval star and planet charts  Saw problems • Predicted locations of celestial bodies differed • Ptolemy had violated his own insistence  Placed at the center with all the planets revolving around it • Accounts for night and day • Explained a number of anomalies (why Venus and mercury were 45 degree away from the Sun) • Heliocentric cycle resolved retrograde motion o Lots of doubts with Copernican system  Cannot experience the motion of the Earth etc.  Violated Aristotelian ordering of the universe which Christendom had relied on for many years • Aristotle’s physics of natural motion fell apart • Centrality of the earth  relied on o Delayed publishing his ideas due to punishments for such speculations  burn at stake (Giordano Bruno) • Galileo (1564 – look it up) o His father wanted him to become a physician  Galileo was more interested in math o First job  teacher of mathematics o Used patronage connections with powerful people (Medici) to work his way up o Began to study motion  Did not publish findings for 40 years  could not figure out its cause  Developed laws of how motion worked  Eventually published mechanics in Discourse of the Two New Sciences (1638)  Rejected Aristotelian motion  speed does not increase continuously • Argued continuous motion will remain forever o Did thought and practical experiments  Galileo proved that two balls would travel at the same rate  Devised a method that would dilute the rate of free fall • Rolled balls down an inclined plane with small notches at regular intervals  measured time by listening to clicks • Discovered distances from rest  proportional to square of time o Huge discovery • Avoided cause  skipped to measurements  Projectile motion  important since connected to ballistics and warfare o Galileo was Copernican  point cannon at 45 degree  produced max range  used arguments of different vectors of motion to argue for movement of Earth o Telescope and the discovery of the new celestial bodies  brought him success  Heard of an invention and imported a model • Worked out optics and developed a more powerful version in 1609  Could see an incoming merchant ship two hours before someone with a naked eye can  Venetian Senate impressed o Taught math to Cosimo o Invented proportional compass  taught practical mathematics  navigation etc. o Four moons of Jupiter  discovery  Starry messenger  Sun  rotating spots, moon  craters, Venus had phases • Showed imperfection of the heavens • Named four bright moons of Jupiter the Medici stars • Tycho Brahe (1546 – 1601) o Prominent figure who tinkered with Copernican’s model to make it more accepted to Church o Instead of serving as a military commander to the King; offered heroic astronomical work as feudal dues instead o Deeply indebted both to the humanist rediscovery and the printing press o Self – taught astronomer who learned from printing press  Best naked-eye observer in Europe  Built a huge observatory and the largest pre-telescopic astronomical instruments ever seen o Devised planetary system  halfway between Copernican and Ptolemy  System had that sun and moon revolved around the Earth while everything else revolved around the Sun  Saved the Earth as the center of the universe o Using impressive astronomical equipment  Made some of the most import comet and new star sightings  Observed comet of 1577 slice through orbit of other planets  forced people to think about physical reality of the solid transparent spheres in Aristotelian cosmology  Also discovered several new stars – stars appearing and continuing in the skies where none had been before  People of the community following Tycho’s lead were also able to see the stars • First instance of community agreement as opposed to scholarly • Johannes Kepler (1571 – 1630) o Became the imperial mathematician in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II  Joined the practice of astronomy o Often called the first true Copernican  Lesser known astronomers could share this title during the 16 century  Endorsed the Heliocentric system • Destroyed the idea of perfect circular heavens  Also attempted to join the physics of the heavens to a mathematical model of their motion • Not taken by other astronomers but showed that such questions were important o Kepler cast his own horoscope to show the importance of astrology to Kepler in particular and society as well  Also for the importance of mathematical precision and accuracy o Was circumscribing a triangle with a circle  Realized orbits of planets might work this way  Postulated that some sort of magnetic force was emanated from the sun, in the center  cause of motion  prime mover  shows kepler influenced by non-Platonic ideas  Answered his questions using Euclidean geometry • Five regular solids  six planets fit perfectly with one solid between orbit  Recreate spacing o Needed better observations of his planetary model  Became assistant to Tycho  hoped he would prove the Tychonic system  Kepler was Copernican  thus other plans o Greatest work: Astronomia Nova (1609 o Worked on the orbit of Mars for eight years  got calculations to agree with the Copernican system to within eight minutes of the arc (Copernican  10 minutes)  Confident that Tycho’s observations were better  Concluded Mars orbit was an ellipse  first law of planetary motion o Postulated that the magnetic force of the sun operated in a mathematically consistent way and that is a line from the Sun to each planet swept out an equal area in an equal time  second law  Meant that when planet was closer to sun  move faster o Harmonic Law  developed trial and error  demonstrated the relation between 3 D 3=K periodic time and the distance from the Sun(T ) • Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) o Born in an influential family and initially trained as a lawyer but worked as a mathematics teacher and practitioner  later became a courtier  Accepted the post of court philosopher to Queen Christina of Sweden • Lucrative post  like patronage of Medicis in Galileo  offered both financial support and honor in exchange for glorification of court and providing philosophical services • Dead of pneumonia  sent body, kept head  rivalry between Swedes and France o In a Discourse on Method (1637)  offered first early modern alternative to Aristotle’s epistemological system  method on skepticism  began by doubting everything until he came to one certain truth  he must exist in order to think  I think therefore I am: Cogitio ergo sum o Deductive method owed origins to geometric proof  starts with a small set of premises or axioms and proceeds to more complex conditions  Not interested in using experimentation as means to discover knowledge • Senses can be fooled • Right reasoning was a much more arbiter in natural philosophical debate • Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) o Rose during the time of a new “scientific method” o Not a natural philosophy but proposed a reform of natural philosophy in the Novum Organum (1620) and The New Atlantis (1627)  Program of reform part of a grander scheme to transform all knowledge  Legal knowledge, moral philosophy etc. o Believed all knowledge was flawed because of the Idols that all men carried with them  Idols  pre
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