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HST 501 (6)

KEY TERMS

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Department
History
Course
HST 501
Professor
Peter Wronski
Semester
Fall

Description
William Seward- A prominent figure during the Republican nomination of 1860. Was supposed to win the nomination but lost to Lincoln. Became the chief cabinet minister under Lincolns administration. Had contact with the Confederates during the early part of the Civil War. Tried to take control of Lincolns administration, which didn‘t work so well. Historiography- the study of the development of history. ‗irrepressible-conflict‘: a speech made by Seward discussing that the north and south fight because of the different views on slavery between the north and the south. ―Future Shock‖ – the idea that the north was advancing into a more modern society was living in a more primitive society. The industrial advancements had a negative impact on the South who were comfortable living in an earlier phase. An argument is that the 1960s was much more violent than the 1950s because of all the advancements. agricultural vs industrial civilization- the South lived in a primarily rural society that involved the buying and selling of harvested goods such as cotton, crops, etc… This traditional way of living clashed with the North who were developing a more capitalist society with a free labour market. The advancement of mechanized production allowed the north to produce large quantities of goods; driving out many skilled craftsmen replaced by factories. economic determinism- the theory which prioritizes the economy over politics in the development of human history. Has been argued to be one of the primary causes of the civil war as the South was interested in keeping slaves for economic prosperity over the idea of freeing them and advancing Second American Revolution- Confederates believed they were fighting a second American revolution when they seceded from the North Hacker-Beard Thesis- argued that the civil war was the second revolution. It needed to happen in order to achieve industrial capitalism to become a state. free-labor ideal: the idea that working for wages was only a temporary step in owning ones business and making strong income. Was what the North saw during rapid industrialization that conflicted with the Souths plantation economy. ethno-cultural divide- north and south were considered completely culturally distinct. They were separate peoples. neo-Confederate- used to describe groups of people who have a positive view of the Confederate states of America, the southern secession. Revisionists- people who constantly re-examine and form new arguments on historical periods and events. Constitutional Federalism vs State Rights- the idea of that the united states is bound together by the constitution and therefore are governed on a federal level vs. the idea that states govern themselves and that the constitution is more of a guideline than absolute St. Paul (Ephesians 6:5) ―...be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ.‖ Servus- the latin term for slave. St. Bathilde Ashanti Confederacy- west African state: powerful, militaristic empire in Africa. Abusing slaves was a high offence. Slaves were allowed to marry, and children of slaves were born free. Timbuktu- northern African state. Known for sending slaves abroad and producing, ivory, gold, etc… Captain John Hawkins 1562- John Hawkins was an explorer known for advancing the slave trade in the old days. Was famous for going on voyages from Queen Elizabeth and bringing back tons of slaves. he‘s considered to be the pioneer of the English slave trade. Royal African Company (RAC)- was a slavery company set up by the Stuart company and London merchants. Logo displays an elephant. It was granted a monopoly over the English slave trade. Established slavery on the west African coast. Slave Code- the code in each of the united states state‘s that defined the status of slaves and the rights of masters. South Seas Company- British company that was granted a monopoly to trade with South America. Only thing that was traded were slaves. Didn‘t make enough of a profit off the trade. Bence Island (Bunce Island)- it is an African slave castle founded and built in Sierra Leone by British traders. Best known in North America as a chief supplier of slaves to the rice industry in South Carolina and Georgia. Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) th Enlightenment- the age in 18 century Britain where many advancements resulted in cultural changes and statutes. English began hating slavery. Many magazines began denouncing slavery. Justinian Code (Justinian's Institutes) Sir William Blackstone Commentaries on the Laws of England (1765-1769) Granville Sharp- Sharp was one of the first campaigners for the abolition of slavery in the united states. Helped represent certain black slaves such as Jonathan Strong Habeas Corpus Act 1679- An act by the parliament of England in 1679 to strengthen the power of habeus corpus, which is a procedure involving someone arrested to meet before judge for an arraignment within a certain amount of time. Helped define the term. Jonathan Strong Case- strong was a black slave who was beaten so badly by his master he was declared useless. He eventually went to court with Sharp (one of the first campaigners for the abolition of the slave trade), and his owner was denied custody of Strong. Strong was a free man. ‗MERICA Continental Congress (1774)- a number of delegates that came together in 1774 and became the governing body of the U.S. during the American revolution. Abolition of the Slave Trade Act (1807)- the UK launched an act that banned the slave trade in England, but not slavery itself. Slavery Abolition Act (1833)- This completely abolished slavery in the UK, not just the slave trade. Nat Turner Rebellion (1831)- Southwest Ordinance (1790)- south Carolina and north Carolina want people to migrate to a new state (which becomes Tenessee). Congress cant emancipate slaves; tons of southern states become slave states along with Tenessee. Eli Whitney‘s Cotton Gin (1794)- invented by a northerner. Picks lint mechanically from cotton. Increased the production 1000 fold from a normal slave. Raises economy substantially. This starts the big slave industry in the South. Louisiana Purchase (1803)- the purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Congressional Ban on the International Slave Trade (1808). It encompassed all or part of 15 states in the U.S. MERICA! Tallmadge Amendment (1819) James Talmadge said: And provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involuntary servitude be prohibited, except for the punishment of crimes, whereof the party shall have been fully convicted; and that all children born within the said State, after the admission thereof into the Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five year[1]‖ This got taken over by the Missouri compromise. Missouri Compromise (1820)-an agreement between North and South that stated that slavery was prohibited above the parallel 36 30 North except within the boundaries of the state of Missouri. William Lloyd Garrison- one of the founders of the American anti-slave society. He was also a huge supporter of women‘s suffrage. Also wrote for the abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator. MERICA American Anti-Slavery Society The Liberator Fugitive Slave Act 1793 (Federal)- An act passed in 1873 that allowed slaves escaping into a free state to be brought back by their owners. "Personal Liberty" State Laws- laws made in response to the fugitive slave act. Designed to give fair treatment to freed slaves without employing nullification. Prigg v. Pennsylvania US Supreme Court (1842)- bounty hunter takes back escaped slave five years after escape. Prigg is first convicted by Pennsylvanian law, he appeals, conviction is thrown away because ―penn laws are unconstitutional‖ Penn law was turned over due to the fugitive slave act. Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Paragraph 2)- federal law takes presidence over state law when it comes to constitutional issues ―historical-necessity thesis‖ John. C. Calhoun- congressman who proposed the Calhoun doctrine which argues for the state sovereignty Calhoun Doctrine (Theory of Nullification)- argues that the us is a contractual compact between sovereign states. The fed govt is a servant to states. doctrine of judicial review Proclamation on Nullification (1
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