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Ryerson University
HST 540
Christopher Pennington

Module 1 Definition of intelligence Intelligence is the umbrella term referring to the range of activitiesfrom planning and information collection to analysis and disseminationconducted in secret and aimed at maintaining or enhancing relative security by providing forewarning of threats or potential threats in a manner that allows for the timely implementation of a preventive policy or strategy including where desirable covert activities Intelligence in an Insecure World p 7 Intelligence Cycle The intelligence cycle defines the central process of the intelligence work General informational flow It consists of five main phases planning and direction collection processing analysis and disseminationErrors can occur at any stage of that process Distortions could arise from the miscommunication between intelligence professionals and decisionmakers Analysts must avoid succumbing to politicizationspinning intelligence to serve certain political needs of a policy makerPlanning and Directionleaders and intelligence managers must decide what information should be gathered o What information would be useful o IssuesScope of the collection depend on states affluence Wealthier nations have the means to expand the breadth of intelligence requirements choices have to be made about the direction of intelligence work since cant cover worldDistortions can arise from flawed communication between intelligence professionals and policymakersDecisionmakers are often unable to clearly outline their priorities ignorant of what is involved in the intelligence work unwilling to devote enough time for consultation with intelligence services or blinded by ideological stubbornness Agencies must be selected but rivalry between organizations may brew Best to task priorities so it does not affect entire intelligence cycle and produce intelligence that is irrelevant inaccurate and unusableCollectiontasking must be translated into specific targets o Other states enemies and friends specific individuals corporations or companies or specific topics of interests eg nuclear capabilitiesothreat assessment is conducted to assess the significance of various potential targetsMore affluent nations have a global presencepermanent assets in most of the worlds regionswhich allow them to simply use these resources to gather intelligence with smaller statesa global surge is initiated which involves sending assets temporarily into an area of interest ovarious methods and strategies are involved in the actual gathering of intelligence intelligence can be gathered from physical or verbal sources Physical intelligence comes from things and not words It involves seeing marching armies enemy trenches or noise of moving vehicles Verbal intelligence is information from written or oral sources such as reports or interrogationdifferent types of intelligence opint open source intelligence humint human intelligence and a variety of techint technical intelligence which can include imint imagery intelligence or sigint signals intelligenceProcessing and AnalysisInformation will remain hidden or useless unless you know what to look for or what you are looking at And it is through processing and analysis that raw information is validated and selected for dissemination and consumptionoFor most effective results analysis requires four things Blending of osint teching and humintwhat the professionals call allsource fusion of intelligenceInformation from a variety of sources is fused together in a search for insights and meaning in unevaluated datademands a brigade of welleducated specialists it requires interagency cooperation Various agencies or services can offer different types of information and perspectives Intelligence liaison within and between nations has become a key ingredientinvolves strong intelligence managers with authority and knowhow o these mistakes can lead to intelligence failuresAnalysts are often pressed to move into the realm of speculation and guessing facing many pitfalls that they must try to avoid Crying wolf too often by exaggerating the nature of the threat can hurt the credibility of agenciesSuccumbing to politicization could lead to intelligence being span or cooked to serve the political needs of a policymaker Ethnocentric bias or mirroring could lead to the projecting of ones own cultural beliefs and values on others Analysts are also prone to wishful thinking which involves excessive optimism or status quo assumptions that events will proceed along a straight line to avoid unpleasant or contradictory conclusions If not caught in timeDisseminationmakes its way into the hands of policymakers and leaders who make important decisions about a nations security
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