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HST 540
Christopher Pennington

Module 7 Gehlen Organization Gehlen Organization was an intelligence agency established in June 1946 by US occupation authorities in the United States Zone of Germany and consisted of former members of the 12th Department of the Army General Staff Foreign Armies East or FHO It carries the name of Reinhard Gehlen Had alliance with CIA Gehlen had realized that the Nazis would be defeated and began planning a strategic surrender to the Allies His bargaining chip was a microfilmed copy of the German intelligence archive on the Soviet Union In the summer of 1945 Gehlen and his senior aides surrendered to the American Army CounterIntelligence Corps Although initially wavering the Allies quickly recognized his experience and knowledge about the Wests new emerging adversary Gehlen was then able to negotiate an agreement with the US allowing his work in intelligence to continue despite the postwar denazificationUsing former SS Gestapo and Abwehr employees Gehlen quickly reconstituted functioning secret services with extensive espionage networks The Gehlen group assumed an inconspicuous name of the South German Industrial Development Organization simply known as the Org The Org trained and operated several networks of spies saboteurs informants and agents throughout Eastern Europe becoming a critical asset in the CIAs arsenal against the Soviets in Europe Thousands were trained for operational missions behind the Iron Curtain By the mid 1950s the Org became the nucleus of the Federal Intelligence Service Bundesnachrichtendienst BND with Gehlen at the helm Federal Intelligence Service Bundesnachrichtendienst BNDforeignintelligence agency of Germany directly subordinated to the Chancellors Office The BND acts as an early warning system to alert the German government to threats to German interests from abroad It depends heavily on wiretapping and electronic surveillance of international communications It collects and evaluates information on a variety of areas such as international terrorism WMD proliferation and illegal transfer of technology organized crime weapons and drug trafficking money laundering illegal migration and information warfare The BND is a successor to the Gehlen Organization The most central figure in its history was Reinhard Gehlen its first President Directorate of the External Security DGSEFrances external intelligence agency Operating under the direction of the French ministry of defence the agency works alongside the DCRI the Central Directorate of Interior Intelligence in providing intelligence and national security notably by performing paramilitary and counterintelligence operations abroad By 1946 these wartime operations were consolidated into the External Documentation CounterEspionage Service SDECE Throughout the 1950s and 1960s the SDECE was involved in many clandestine activities Its infamous history has been highlighted in its involvement in Indochinas drug trade Algerian counter insurgency and the separatist movement in Quebec The SDECE generated huge profits by controlling illicit drug trafficking to fund their operations throughout East Asia It acquired a reputation for ruthlessness and brutality in the decolonization struggles in Algeria and Northern Africa Lastly it was implicated in supporting the separatist groups in Quebec In the early 1980s the SDECE became the Directorate of the External Security DGSE the name by which it is known today Mossad Mossad Letafkidim Meyuchadim Israel The Mossad Mossad Letafkidim Meyuchadim assumed the role of the central institute for the coordination and organization of foreign intelligence becoming responsible for humint covert action and counterterrorism The Israeli intelligence community has been highly successful over the years in penetrating their neighbours and launching covert and paramilitary operations For instance in 1960 the Mossad carried out one of its most famous operationsthe kidnapping of Adolph Eichmann a Nazi war criminal and bringing him to trial in Israel Furthermore the secret services have had a reputation for resorting to assassinations as a matter of state policy For example the Mossad retaliated ruthlessly against those involved in the 1972 massacre of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics Kang Shengin the 1920s the Communists responded with the establishment of two intelligence groups which eventually amalgamated into the Social Affairs Department SAD under the watchful eye of Kang Sheng Kang had learned the tradecraft from the NKVD in Moscow and had turned out to be an astute and talented student of espionage Following the outbreak of the SinoJapanese War in 1937 Kang masterfully reorganized Mao Tse Tungs intelligence to support the campaign against both the KMT and the Japanese Once the Japanese Empire was defeated intelligence became a tool in the civil war between the Communists and the nationalists Ministry of State Security MSS The Cultural Revolution launched in the latter half of the 1960s left no institution untouched The leadership of the intelligence services was sent for reeducation Meanwhile Keng who had entered politics after 1949 returned to his espionage roots to initiate a massive purge of the Communist Party Thousands of loyal party members and innocent victims were killed under the direction of the CIDBy the early 1980s the CID was merged with the counterintelligence work of the Ministry of Public Security to create the Ministry of State Security MSS Much of the work of the MSS has centered on internal subversion antiCommunist exiles and economic espionage especially in the United States UKUSA
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