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Ryerson University
HST 610
Robert Teigrob

History 610 Term Test Time – 50 minutes Identification: Identify six (6) of the following in a short paragraph for each. Pay particular attention to context and significance for international relations (5 points each = 30 points). Teller Amendment: added to US declaration of war against Spain (1898 under Pres. McKinley) by Senator Henry Teller. Stated US had no intention of seizing or controlling Cuba as a result of war. Many Americans, including those associated with the Anti-Imperial League in the US, were concerned that the Spanish-American War would serve as a pretext for American colonial expansion, and this amendment sought to soothe those fears. Significance: shows the US tradition of anti-imperialism to be alive and well, at least in the minds of some prominent politicians. Even more significantly, the amendment was replaced in 1901 with the Platt Amendment, which allowed US control over Cuba’s foreign policy, the right to intervene, and a naval base at Guantanamo. So the Teller Amendment is undone, showing a growing acceptance of the idea that the US was becoming an imperial power around 1900. Roosevelt Corollary: an addition to the Monroe Doctrine of 1823. The MD was a warning to Europeans that the Western Hemisphere was now the US sphere of influence. The RC, on the other hand, was a warning to Latin America that the US would intervene, using force if necessary, if governments were unable to maintain stability and ensure the safety of US corporations and security of US investments in Latin America. Significance: basically, a declaration that the US served as the colonial master of Latin America, a renunciation of traditional opposition to imperialism in the US. Also important to note that this was no idle threat: the RC served as the basis for 30 years of intervention and occupation in Latin America, a legacy that would leave Latin Americans bitter and beholden to the interests of the US. George Frisbie Hoar: US Senator from Massachusetts who supported a range of progressive causes. We know him as the critic of McKinley’s policy toward the Philippines, which the US acquired as a result of the Spanish- American War. Good answers to this required some examples of why Hoar was so enraged over this. For example: the US has treated the Philippines differently than Cuba; this will breed anti-Americanism in the region for generations; the costs (financial and human) are staggering; this goes against what the US claims to stand for (independence, sovereignty, democracy, self-government – the US has ruined its international reputation). Significance: Shows that despite the actions of the US government, powerful voices of opposition were never eliminated – the US has always been a site of intensive debates over core values, and when those core values are violated, influential Americans call for a return to the principles on which the nation was based. William Howard Taft: US President (1909-1913). Key figure behind Dollar Diplomacy, which must be defined in comparison to what it replaced: the ‘big stick’ approach of T Roosevelt. DD emphasized the importance of businessmen as ambassadors abroad, and spoke of gaining influence for the US not through political or military means, but through investment and trade. Taft’s DD focused on Latin America and China, since these were areas outside of firm European control in the early 20 century. Some answers incorrectly placed Taft behind the creation of the ‘Open Door’ policy in China, but that was negotiated in 1900 by Secretary of State John Hay, who was very dead by the time Taft got to office. Taft simply built upon the idea of the Open Door in China and encouraged US businessmen to move in on a massive scale during his term in office. Significance: while it certainly sounds better than ‘big stick’ diplomacy if you are on the receiving end of this policy, many viewed this as neo-imperialism rather than fair, state-to- state economic interaction. More importantly, when Taft did not achieve his desired objectives, intervention by US marines often followed. In this sense, DD wasn’t much different than the ‘big stick.’ John Hay: Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt (1898 until Hay’s death in 1905), most famous for proposing the ‘Open Door’ policy in China to European powers who had until this point divided China into spheres of influence. European powers didn’t officially respond to this 1900 proposal, but when the Boxer Rebellion broke out (an anti-foreigner revolt in 1900) the US stepped in to help Britain, France, Russia, Germany, Austria, Italy and Japan retain control. As an unspoken reward for US assistance, the other powers began permitting US investment in their spheres of influence, so many of Hay’s objectives were achieved. Investment took place on a small scale until Taft made it a major focus of his policy. Significance: shows the US trying to expand its financial influence in a world still dominated by European colonialism, and also shows the US placing its economic goals above its stated commitment to anti-imperialism (Hay didn’t ask for a free and independent China, for ex., just a China that the US could also exploit along with other colonial powers). Venustanio Carranza: Overthrew Mexican dictator Huerta in 1915, but Wilson has issues with Carranza, because: C achieved power through violence (like Huerta before him); because Carranza is not willing to take orders from Wilson; and because Carranza speaks of nationalizing Mexican industry, much of which is controlled by US investors. Wilson then backs the revolutionary efforts of Pancho Villa, but withdraws support to Villa when the US becomes entangled in the mess (WWI) in Europe. Carranza holds elections and begins nationalizing Mexican industries. Significance: Wilson should have been a strong supporter of Carranza, since C was a republican and a constitutionalist. But in this case US economic interests were clearly more important than commitments to democracy and self-determination. Also, Wilson frequently condemned the ‘violent’ Latin Americans for their actions, but had no qualms about sending arms to Villa to overthrow a regime that wasn’t serving US interests. Committee on Public Information: created after the US enters WWI in 1917 to ensure Americans were firmly behind the war effort. Headed by George Creel, a journalist. It is important to point out that the committee was considered nec
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