Human Resources Exam Review (Chpt. 9 - 16)

15 Pages

Health Services Management
Course Code
HSM 437
Howard Muchnick

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Human Resources Exam Review Chapter 9 – Career Development Career Planning and Development - The process through which a person becomes aware of personal career-related attributes Career – a series of work-related positions, paid or unpaid that help a person to grow in job skills Career Development – the lifelong series of activities that contribute to a person’s career exploitations Career Planning – the deliberate process through which someone becomes aware of personal skills, interests, knowledge, etc. Roles in Career Development – requires 4 key skills, 1. Self-motivation 2. Independent learning 3. Effective time and money management 4. Self-promotion Networking – an organized process whereby the individual arranges and conducts a series of face-to- face meetings with his or her colleagues The Career Cycle Growth Stage – The period from birth to around age 14 during which the person develops a self-concept by identifying with and interacting with other people, such as family and friends. Exploration Stage – The period from around age 15 – 24 during which a person seriously explores various occupational alternatives, attempting to match these alternatives with his interests and skills Establishment Stage – The period from roughly age 24 – 44, that is the heart of most peoples work lives Maintenance Stage – The period from about age 45 – 65 during which the person secures his place in the world of work Decline Stage – The period during which many people are faced with the prospect of having to accept reduced levels of power and responsibility The 6 Personal Orientations 1. Realistic Orientation – These people like occupations that involve physical activities requiring strength, skill, and coordination. (Forestry, farming, agriculture) 2. Investigative Orientation – Attracted the careers that involve cognitive abilities such as thinking organization and understanding. (Biologists, Professors, Chemists) 3. Social Orientation – Attracted to the careers that involve interpersonal activities. (Clinical Psychology, social work, foreign service) 4. Conventional Orientation – Favours careers where it is expected to put your job above personal needs (accountants & bankers) 5. Enterprising Orientation – Verbal activities aimed at influencing others (Saul Goodman) 6. Artistic Orientation – Attracted to careers that involve self-expression, creation, and individualism (musicians, artists) The 8 Career Anchors 1. Technical/Functional (chosen technical field) 2. Managerial Competence (want authority) 3. Creativity (control over own product) 4. Autonomy/Independence (independent from senior management) 5. Security (long-run stability) 6. Service/Dedication (do something meaningful) 7. Pure Challenge (needs challenge) 8. Lifestyle (works with lifestyle and schedule) The Responsibilities of the Organization  Avoid Reality Shock  Provide Challenging Initial Jobs  Be Demanding  Provide Periodic Development Job Rotation  Provide Career-Oriented Performance Appraisals  Provide Career-Planning Workshops  Provide Opportunities for Mentoring  Become a Learning Organization Career Planning Workshop – A planned learning event in which participants are expected to be actively involved in career-planning exercises Mentoring – An experienced individual teaches the trainee in a certain area, reverse mentoring is when a younger employee provides guidance to senior executives on how to use the web for messaging, buying products, services, etc. Learning Organization – An organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights Management Development – Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes, or increasing skills Succession Planning – A process through which senior-level and critical strategic job openings are planned for and eventually filled, successful succession planning begins with CEO leadership and:  Establishing a strategic direction for the organization and jobs that are critical to achieving that strategic direction  Identifying core skills needed in jobs that are critical to achieve the strategy  Identifying people inside the organization who have, or can acquire, those skills and providing them with developmental opportunities (being prepared to recruit externally well) Developmental Job Rotation – A management-training technique that involves moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points Coaching / Understudy approach - the trainee works directly with the person he is replacing Action Learning – A training technique by which management trainees are allowed to work fulltime, analyzing and solving problems in other departments Case Study Method – A development method in which a trainee is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose and solve Management Game – A computerized development technique in which teams of managers compete with one another by making decisions regarding realistic but simulated companies Role Playing - a training technique in which trainees act arts of people in a realistic management situation Behaviour Modelling – A training technique in which trainees are first shown good management techniques, then asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and finally given feedback regarding their performance. The model is as follows:  Modelling  Role Playing  Social Reinforcement  Transfer of training In-house development centre - a company based method for exposing prospective managers to realistic exercises to develop improved management skills 70% of learning comes from job experience 3 Basic Requirements for successful leadership 1. Knowledge 2. Competency 3. Character 6 Categories of competencies 1. Self-Mastery 2. Futuring (Vision) 3. Sense making (Thinking) 4. Design of intelligent action 5. Aligning people to action (Leading) 6. Adaptive Learningr4 Chapter 10 – Performance Management Performance Management – The process encompassing all activities related to improving employee performance, productivity, and effectiveness The Performance Management Process contains 5 steps: 1. Defining performance expectations and goals 2. Providing ongoing feedback and coaching 3. Conducting performance appraisals and evaluations 4. Determining performance rewards / consequences 5. Conducting development and car Graphic rating scale – The simplest and most popular technique for appraising performance, a scale that lists a number of traits and a range of performance for each Alternation Ranking – ranking employees from best to worst on a particular trait Paired comparison method – Ranking employees by making a chart of all possible pairs of employees for each trait and indicating the better employee of the pair Forced Distribution method – predetermined percentages of rates are placed in various performance categories Critical Incident Method – Keeping a record of uncommonly good or undesirable examples of an employees work related behavior Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) – An appraisal method that aims to combine the benefits of narratives, critical incidents, and quantified ratings. Developing a BARS requires 5 steps: 1. Generate critical incidents 2. Develop performance dimensions 3. Reallocate incidents 4. Scale the incidents 5. Develop the final instrument Although BARS can be more time consuming, it also has important advantages  A more accurate measure  Clearer standards  Feedback  Independent dimensions  Consistency Management by Objectives – Involves setting specific measurable goals with each employee and the periodically reviewing the progress made, make sure to avoid setting unclear or unattainable goals, is time consuming, and can be seen as an employee / manager tug of war in terms of control. MBO consists of 6 main steps 1. Set the organizations goals 2. Set departmental goals 3. Discuss departmental goals 4. Define expected results 5. Performance reviews 6. Provide Feedback Electronic Performance monitoring (EPM) – Having supervisors electronically monitor the amount of computerized data an employee is processing per day 7 Main problems can undermine appraisal tools, such as: 1. Unclear performance standards – a scale that is too open to interpretation of traits and standards 2. Halo Effect – the problem that occurs when a supervisors rating of an employee affects how he is rated in other categories (ex. A nice person would most likely get rated high in teamwork, whether he deserves it or not.) 3. Central Tendency – A tendency to rate all employees near the center of the scale 4. Strictness / Leniency – A problem that occurs when a supervisor has a tendency to rate all employees low or high 5. Appraisal Bias – The tendency to allow individual differences such as age, race and sex, to affect rankings 6. Recency Effect – The error that occurs when evaluations are presented with the employees most recent performance, instead of the collective 7. Similar-to-me-bias – The tendency to give employees that are similar to the supervisor high grades How to avoid appraisal problems:  Raters must be familiar with the problems discussed  Choose the right appraisal tool  Train supervisors to eliminate rating errors How to conduct an effective appraisal process 1. Conduct a job analysis to ascertain characteristics 2. Incorporate these characteristics into a rating instrument 3. Make sure that definitive performance standards are provided to all raters 4. Use clearly defined individual dimensions of job performance 5. When using graphic rating scales, avoid abstract trait names (honesty, loyalty) 6. Employ personal supervisory ratings 7. Train supervisors to use the rating instrument properly 8. Allow appraisers regular contact with the employee being evaluated 9. Have more than one appraisal conduct the operation 10. Utilize formal appeal mechanisms and a review of ratings by upper level managers 11. Document evaluations 12. Provide corrective guidance Supervisors, peers, committee, self, subordinates can all evaluate you 360 degree appraisal – uses multiple raters including peers, employees reporting to the appraise, supervisors, and customers. Gets everyone’s opinion on you Appraisal interview – an interview in which the supervisor and employee review the appraisal and make plans to remedy deficiencies and reinforce strengths Three types of appraisal interviews 1. Satisfactory, Promotable – Discuss the persons career path and develop an action plan 2. Satisfactory, Not Promotable – Objective is to maintain satisfactory performance 3. Unsatisfactory, Correctable – Lay out an action plan correcting the performance How to conduct an interview  Be direct and specific  Do not get personal  Encourage the person to talk  Develop an action plan 7 Steps to improve performance following an appraisal interview 1. Let the employee know that his or her performance is unacceptable and explain your minimum expectations 2. Ensure that your expectations are reasonable 3. Let employees know warnings play a significant role 4. Ensure that you take corrective measures 5. Avoid sending mixed messages 6. Provide the employee with enough time to improve 7. Be prepared to support your employees Chapter 11 – Strategic Pay Plans Total Rewards – An integrated package of all rewards gained by employees arising from their employment, it has 3 broad categories: compensation, benefits, and work experience The 5 Components of Total Rewards 1. Compensation 2. Benefits 3. Work/life Programs 4. Performance and Recognition 5. Development and Career Opportunities Purpose of rewards – Attract, retain, and motivate employees 4 Basic considerations that influence pay plan are: 1. Legal Requirements – Employment / Labour Standards Act, Pay Equity Acts, Human Rights Acts, Canada/Quebec Pension Plan 2. Union Influences 3. Compensation Policies 4. Equity / Pay Rates Establishing Pay Rates 3 Steps 1. Determine the worth of the job 2. Conduct a wage / salary survey for others doing comparable jobs 3. Combine steps 1 and 2 to determine the pay rates Job Evaluation – A systematic comparison to determine the relative worth of jobs within a firm Benchmark Job – A job that is critical to the firms operations or commonly found in other organizations Compensable Factor – A fundamental, compensable element of a job, such as skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions Classification/grading method – a method for categorizing jobs into groups called classes if they are similar jobs and grades if they are similar in difficulty, but otherwise different Point Method – the job evaluation method in which a number of compensable factors are identified, and an overall point value is calculated, 4 steps are ensued 1. Preliminary Steps 2. Determine factor weights and degrees 3. Assign points for each degree 4. Evaluate the job Pay Grade – Comprises jobs of approximately equal value Wage/Salary Survey – A survey aimed at determining prevailing wage rates. Wage Curve – A graphic description of the relationship between the value of the job and the average wage paid for this job Pay Ranges – a series of steps or levels within a pay grade, usually based on years of service Broadbanding – Reducing the number of salary grades and ranges into just a dew wide levels or “bands” Red Circle Pay Rate – A rate of pay that is above the maximum Pay for knowledge – these types pay employees for the range, depth, and types of knowledge that they are
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