Human Resources Chapter 1 – Human Resource Management
Human resources management (HRM) – Refers to the management of people in organizations to drive
successful performance, achievements, and goals
HR professionals are responsible for ensuring that the organization attracts, retains, and engages the
talent required to meet performance commitments and standards.
Human Resource Management Responsibilities (2 Categories)
Operational (Administrative) Category – HR professionals hire and maintain employees then manage
them to do certain tasks. The professionals must have skill and confidence in selecting their employees
-Services of HR include: analyzing jobs, planning future workforce requirements, selecting / training
Outsourcing is common within operational, in which HR begins business with outside vendors to handle
specified business functions on a permanent basis
Strategic Category – HR is focused on ensuring that the organization is staffed with the most effective
human capital to achieve its goals.
- Service of HR include: lowering labour costs, creates strategy to reduce turnover, absenteeism, etc.
Environmental Scanning – identifying and analyzing external opportunities and threats that may be
crucial to the organizations success.
-HR Specialists are supposed to be known as change agents, employees who lead the organization
Metrics are stats used to measure activities and results
Balanced Scorecard is a measurement system that translates an organizations strategy into a
comprehensive set of performance measures
Human Capital is the knowledge, education, training, skills, and expertise of a firms workers.
5 External Environmental Influences on HRM
1. Economic Changes affect supply and demand, which drastically changes need for employees
and the owners ability to pay wages. If unemployment were to drop, there would be more
competition for qualified workers. Productivity refers to the ratio of an organization’s outputs
(goods and services) to its
inputs (people, capital, energy, and materials). Changes in the employment sectors
The Primary Sector includes agriculture, fishing, forestry & mining. The Secondary Sector
includes manufacturing and construction. The Tertiary (Or Service) Sector includes public administration, personal and business services, finance, etc.
2. Workforce Issues – Increasing workforce diversity creates a need for a much more diverse
working environment than in the past. Young aboriginal people are untapped employees, while
people with disabilities have a unemployment rate of almost 50% higher than ours.
- Traditionalists (The Silent Generation) represent people born before 1946, they lived through
a world war and the great depression, and they tend to be quiet, loyal, and self-sacrificing.
- Baby Boomers include the people born between 1946 and 1964, the largest group, career
focused, with much experience with competition.
- Sandwich Generation includes individuals who must care for a young dependant as well as
assisting an elderly relative who can no longer live independently.
- Generation X includes people who were born between 1965 and 1980, the first technology
literate generation, they tend to be independent.
- Generation Y includes all people who were born after 1980; they tend to be techno-savvy,
comfortable with diversity and eager to contribute.
- Non-Standard / Contingent Workers – Part-Time Workers
3. Technology – Enables people to work anywhere and everywhere, the workplace of today
includes coffee shops, airports, etc. Sophisticated control options are also used to monitor
employee speed , accuracy, and efficiency, as well as using video surveillance
4. Government – Each province and territory has its own human rights, employment standards,
labour relations, health and safety and workers compensation legislation. Minimum wage,
overtime requirements, and vacation entitlements also vary.
5. Globalization – Refers to the emergence of a single global market. This is increasing the
intensity of the competition and leading most organizations to expand around the world. Means
that HR professionals need to become familiar with employment legislation in other countries
and handle ethical dilemmas not seen in Canada.
Internal Environmental Influences
Organizational Culture - the core values, beliefs, and assumptions that are widely shared by members of
an organization. It serves a variety of purposes: Communicating what organization “believes in” and
“stands for”, providing employees with a sense of direction and expected behaviour, shaping employees
attitudes, creating a sense of identity and orderliness, and fostering employee loyalty and commitment.
Organizational Climate – The prevailing atmosphere that exists in an organization and its impacts on
Empowerment – providing workers with the skills and authority to make higher decisions, utilizing the
employee to a higher potential and handing over responsibility. History of HRM
Frederick Taylor was the driving force behind scientific management, the process of scientifically
analyzing manufacturing processes, reducing production costs, and compensating employees based on
Human Relations Movement, which emerged in the 1920`s – 1930`s, was a belief that the attitudes and
feelings of workers are important and deserve more attention.
Certification – recognition for having met certain professional standards
Social Responsibility – the implied, enforced or felt obligation of managers acting in their official
capacity, to serve and protect the interests of groups other than themselves.
Chapter 2 – The Changing Legal Emphasis
Equal Pay for Equal work
Employers cannot pay male and female employees differently if they are performing the same or
substantially same work
Regulations are legally binding rules established by the special regulatory bodies created to enforce
compliance with the law and aid in its interpretation
Employment (Labour) Standards Legislation are laws present in every Canadian jurisdiction that
establish minimum employee entitlements and set a limit on the maximum number of hours of work
permitted per day or week.
Human rights legislation makes it illegal to discriminate, even unintentionally against various groups.
The Charter of Rights and Freedoms is a federal law enacted in 1982 that guarantees fundamental
freedoms to all Canadians. The charter allows laws to infringe on the right if they can be justified, in a
free society. The charter includes rights such as:
1. Freedom of conscience and religion
2. Freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including freedom of the press
3. Freedom of peaceful assembly 4. Freedom of association
as well as an abundance of multicultural heritage rights etc.
Equality rights are included in the charter under section 15. Stating the right to equal protection and
benefit of the law without discrimination
Discrimination is defined as a distinction or preference against a group of people
Intentional Discrimination is defined as directly discriminating against an individual. Ex. Refusing to hire,
or promote someone, Discrimination of association occurs when an individual is discriminated against
because of a friendship or relationship with someone else.
Unintentional Discrimination is also illegal, this occurs when an employer makes a comment that the
various groups would not like, not direct discrimination, but its there.
Reasonable accommodation occurs when, for example: someone who is in a wheelchair would like to
work at the company, but would need a ramp, a reasonable accommodation would be to purchase a
small ramp, and the difference between reasonable and unreasonable is called undue hardship, which is
the point where the employer must meet to meet accommodation standards.
The only Permissible discrimination is the bona fide occupational requirement which is defined as
justifiable discrimination. Ex. A blind person applying for a bus driver position
Sexual Harassment is offensive, or humiliating behavior based on a person’s sex
Sexual Coercion is when sexual harassment occurs, resulting in direct consequence to the person’s job
status or benefits.
Sexual Annoyance is sexually related conduct, intimidating or offensive, though does not affect the
victims job status in anyway
Occupational segregation is the existence of certain occupations that have traditionally been dominated
by male or female workers
Glass Ceiling is an invisible barrier based on bias which limits the promotion opportunities for specific
group members. Underemployment is when an employee is overqualified for his line of work, but was put there
(Example) because they were a visible minority
The Plight of the Four Designated Groups
3. People with Disabilities
4. Visible Minorities
Employment Equity Program is a detailed plan designed to identify and correct existing discrimination
Utilization analysis is the comparison of the internal workforce representation with external workforce
The Employee Equity Process
1. Senior-Management commitment and support
2. Data collection and Analysis
3. Employment Systems Review
4. Plan Development
6. Monitoring, Evaluating, and Revising
Reverse Discrimination is when preference is given to another group besides the hosts, and as a result,
the host eels as though he is being discriminated by. (White Males)
A strong relationship between HR and technology will enable HR to achieve three key objectives:
1. Strategic Alignment with the business objectives
2. Business intelligence providing users with relevant data
3. Effectiveness and efficiency changing how HR work is performed by reducing lead times, cost,
and service levels.
Human Resources Information System (HRIS) is a system used to gather, store, and analyze information
regarding an organizations human resources.
Data warehouse is a type of database that is optimized for reporting and analysis.
Enterprise Resource Planning System is a system in place that supports cross functional requirements
within a department, instead of a single department.
Management Self Service (MSS) Management Self-Service enables managers to access a range of information about themselves and
employees to process HR-related work.
The History of HR
1. Paper-based systems
2. Early Personal Computers
3. Electronic Database Systems
4. Web-Based Technology
Organizational structure is the formal relationships among jobs in an organization
Organization Chart is a snapshot of the firm, depicting the business’s employment structure for a
Job Design is the process of dividing your job into tasks that are required to perform a job
A Job is a group of responsibilities or tasks that an employee/employees must complete
A Position is the collection of tasks and responsibilities that one person must complete
Work Simplification is the thought that all work can be revised down to highly specialized, repetitive
tasks to maximize efficiency
Industrial engineering is a field of study concerned with analyzing work methods; making work cycles
more efficient etc.
Job enlargement (horizontal loading) is when you give an employee extra tasks to perform, though at
the same level of responsibility to increase to number of tasks they have to perform. Job Rotation is also
used to change up the jobs of an individual, as to not get boring.
Job Enrichment (Vertical Loading) is when an employee now has more responsibilities to take care of,
making them feel like they are a bigger contribution.
Ergonomics is an approach that attempts to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of the
workers into the design of jobs. It aims to better the work environment
Job Analysis is the procedure of going over the duties and responsibilities of an employee.
Process Chart is a diagram showing the flow of inputs and outputs of a business.
The 6 Steps in Job Analysis
1. Identify the use to which the information will be put 2. Review relevant background information
3. Select the applicants to be analyzed
4. Analyze the job following
5. Review the information with the employee
6. Develop a job description and specification
The 3 Types of Interviews
Qualitative Job Analysis occurs when employers use methods such as interviews to find the best
Quantitative Job Analysis occurs when an aim is to assign a value to each position so that jobs can be
compared for pay purposes
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a questionnaire used to collect data concerning the duties and
responsibilities of various jobs
Functional Job Analysis (FJA) is a method for classifying jobs based on types and amounts of
responsibility for data, people, and things. Performance and requirement standards are also identified.
National Occupational Classification (NOC) – A reference tool for creating job descriptions and
Competencies are characteristics of a person that enable them to perform a certain job. Competency
Based Job Analysis is describing the job in terms of required knowledge, skill, and/or behaviour.
Three Reasons to use Competency Analysis
1. High performance work system – Encourage employees
2. More Strategic – letting the employee know exactly what is required
3. Performance management Process – measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies support
Human Resource Planning (HRP) is the process of forecasting future human resources requirements to
ensure that the organization will have the required number of employees with the required amount of
skills to meet the businesses objectives. Lack of HRP can lead to significant costs when unstaffed
positions create costly inefficiencies, reduce morale, and productivity, and can cause turnover.
HRP and strategic planning become effective when a reciprocal and interdependent relationship exists
between them. The most significant environmental factor relates to the dramatic demographic changes in labour force
Steps in HRP
1. Forecasting future human resource needs (demand)
2. Forecasting the availability of internal and external candidates (supply)
3. Planning and implementing HR programs to balance supply and demand
Quantitative Techniques for determining human resources requirements include: STATS & FO