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MHR405 - CH 11,12,15.docx

7 Pages

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 405
Robin Church

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Chapter 12 - Leadership in Organizational Settings Leadership - influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members; consists of two components:  leaders motivate others through persuasion and other influence tactics  leaders are enablers Five perspectives of leadership 1. Competency 2. Behavioural 3. Contingency 4. Transformational 5. Implicit Competency Perspective of Leadership  identifies certain personal characteristics that lead to superior performance in a leadership role  personality  self concept  drive - successful leaders have a high need for achievement  integrity  leadership motivation  knowledge of the business  cognitive and practical intelligence  emotional intelligence Authentic leadership - an important characteristic that is associated with effective leaders that refers to how effective leaders need to be aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their values, personality, and self-concept. Competency Perspective Limitations  assumes that all effective leaders have the same personal characteristics that are equally important in all situations  alternative combinations of competencies might work just as well  leadership is relational, not just something within the person  competencies refer to leadership potential, not performance Behavioural Perspective of Leadership  study distilled two clusters of leadership:  directive leadership - includes behaviours that define and structure work roles  supportive leadership - includes behaviours such as listening to employees for their opinions and ideas Limitations of Supportive Leadership vs. Directive  two categories are broad generalizations that mask specific behaviours within each category; these clusters of activities are fairly distinct and likely have different effects on employee well- being and performance  assumes that high levels of both styles are best in all situations; in reality, the best leadership style depends on the situation Servant leadership - extension of the supportive leadership style b/c it defines leadership as serving others toward their need fulfillment, personal development, and growth Contingency Perspective of Leadership  based on the idea that the most appropriate leadership style depends on the situation  path goal theory of leadership - leaders create paths to effective performance for their employees  states that effective leaders ensure that good performers receive more valued rewards than do poor performers Path Goal Leadership Styles 1. Directive 2. Supportive 3. Participative 4. Achievement oriented Contingencies of Path Goal Theory  specifies two sets of situational variables that moderate the relationship between a leader's style and effectiveness: (1) employee characteristics and (2) characteristics of the employee's work environment Four Contingencies: 1. Skill and experience  directive and supportive leadership is best for employees who are inexperienced and unskilled 2. Locus of Control  employees with internal locus of control prefer participative and achievement oriented leadership styles  employees with external locus of control - supportive and directive leadership 3. Task Structure  leaders should adopt directive style when task is nonroutine  employees in highly routine tasks require supportive leadership  participative leadership is effective with nonroutine tasks 4. Team Dynamics  team cohesion is low - leaders should use the supportive style.  leaders should apply a directive style to counteract team norms that oppose the team's formal objectives Other Contingency Theories Situational Leadership Theory ( Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard) - suggests that effective leaders vary their style with the ability and motivation (or commitment) of followers  identifies four type of leadership styles - telling, selling, participating and delegating Downside?  only one type works - "telling" (during directive style when employee lacks motivation) Fiedler's Contingency Model (Fred Fiedler)- suggests that the best leadership style depends on the level of situational control, that is, the degree of power and influence that the leader possesses in a particular situation  situational control is affected by three factors - leader member relations, task structure and position power Leadership substitutes - identifies conditions that either limit a leader's ability to influence employees or make a particular leadership style unnecessary e.g. directive leadership might be less important when performance-based reward systems keep employees directed toward organizational goals and co-workers substitute for leadership in high- involvement team structures. Transformational Perspective of Leadership - (most popular perspective today)  views effective leaders as change agents - changing the organization to fit the environment Transactional leadership - influence others by using rewards, penalties and negotiations e.g. politicians asking people for their vote in return for change in society Managerial leadership - focus on leader behaviours that improve employee performance and well-being Transformational vs. Charismatic Leadership  charisma is a personal trait or relational quality that provides referent power over followers ; transformational leadership is a set of behaviours that engage followers toward a better future Elements of Transformational Leadership  develop a vision  communicate the vision  model the vision  build commitment toward the vision Transformational Leadership Limitations  research defines transformational leaders by their success rather than their behaviour  need to recognize cultural differences  this type of leadership is only valuable in some situations than others Implicit Perspective of Leadership  these include the follower's perceptions of effective leaders  highlights the fact that leadership is a perception of followers as much as the actual behaviours and formal roles of people calling themselves leaders It consists of two components:  leader prototypes - preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviours of effective leaders  romance or attribution of leadership - followers tend to distort their perception of the influence that leaders have on the environment ; people want to believe that leaders make a difference  fundamental attribution error -leaders are put to blame when company fails and praise them when it is successful Cross-Cultural Leadership  preferred leadership style varies among cultures  charismatic visionary is universally accepted  participative leadership is seen as effective only in low pow
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