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Human Resources
MHR 405
Louis Pike

Chapter 5 Claire Morand Motivation Forces within a person affect: 1. Direction 2. Intensity 3. Persistence of voluntary behaviour Intrinsic Motivation = internal drive to do something b/c of interest, challenge, or personal satisfaction Extrinsic Motivation = external motivation that comes from praise, rewards, or promotion Content vs. Process (Cognitive) Theories of Motivation Content Process 1. Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs 1. Vroom‟s Expectancy Theory 2. McGregor‟s X-Y Theory 2. Equity Theory 3. Alderfer‟s ERG Theory 3. Goal-Setting Theory 4. McClelland‟s Theory of Learned Needs 4. Behaviour Modification 5. Herzberg‟s Two Factor Theory Expectancy Theory of Motivation work effort is directed toward behaviours that lead to desired outcomes (Effort  Performance  3 Outcomes/ Valences) Strengthening Motivation Increasing E-to-P Expectancies - assuring employees that have competencies - person-job matching - provide role clarification and sufficient resourc- behavioural modeling Increasing P-to-O Expectancies - measure performance accurately - more rewards for good performance - explain how rewards are linked to performance Increasing Outcome Valences - ensure that rewards are valued - individualize rewards - minimize countervalent outcomes Increasing Intrinsic Valences - person-job matching Behaviour Modification - human thoughts are unimportant - learning is dependent on the environment - we “operate” on the environment ABCs of Behaviour Modification Four OB Mod Consequences  Positive reinforcement - introduction of a consequence increases/maintains a behaviour  Punishment - consequence decreases a behaviour  Negative reinforcement – removal/avoidance of a consequence increases/maintains a behaviour  Extinction - behaviour decreases b/c there is no consequence Behaviour Modification  Behaviour modification is used in: everyday life to influence behaviour of others & companies to reduce absenteeism, improve safety, etc.  Behaviour modification problems: reward inflation, variable ratio schedule viewed as gambling & denies relevance of cognitive processes in learning. Social Cognitive Theory  Learning Behaviour Outcomes: observing and anticipating consequences that people experience in other situations  Behaviour Modeling: observing and modeling other‟s behaviours  Self-regulation: people engage in intentional, purposive action & set goals, achievement standards, plan of action, anticipate consequences & self-reinforcement Goal Setting Motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives. Effective Goal Setting Characteristics 1. Specific = measurable change within a time frame 2. Relevant = within employee‟s control & responsibilities 3. Challenging = raise level of effort 4. Accepted (commitment) = motivated to accomplish the goal 5. Participative (sometimes) = improves acceptance & goal quality 6. Feedback – information available about progress toward goal Equity Theory - Outcome/input ratio Inputs -- what employee contributes (e.g., skill) outcomes -- what employee receives (e.g., pay) - Comparison other people against whom we compare our ratio - Equity evaluation compare outcome/input ratio with the comparison other Correcting Inequality Tension Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Esteem Belongingness Safety Physiological 3 Learned Needs - Achievement - Affiliation - Power 4 Drive Theory The 4 drives affect motivation: 1. They determine which emotions are automatically tagged to incoming information 2. They generate independent & competing emotions that get our attention 3. Mental skill set relies on social norms, personal values, & experience to transform drive-based emotions into goal-directed choice and effort Organizational Justice - Distributive Justice = fairness in outcomes we receive (our contributions and the outcomes of them) - Procedural Justice = used to decide the distribution of resources Effective Goal Setting Characteristics  Specific - measureable change within a time frame  Relevant – within employee‟s control and responsibilities  Challenging – raise level of effort  Accepted (commitment) – motivated to accomplish the goal  Participative (sometimes) – improves acceptance and goal quality  Feedback – information available about progress toward goal Effective Feedback Characteristics 1. Specific – connected to goal details 2. Relevant – Relates to person‟s behaviour 3. Timely – to improve link from behaviour to outcomes 4. Sufficiently frequent  Employee‟s knowledge/experience  task cycle 5. Credible – trustworthy source Chapter 10 – Power & Influence Claire Morand Power is the capability of a person/ team/ organization to influence others. - potential, not actual use - perception, not necessarily reality - people have power that they may not know they have Sources of Power On exam * “Having” power and “using” power. You continue to have your sources of power even if you don‟t use them. E.X. If you‟re the boss, then you have coercive power whether or not you use it. Power in Organizations Contingencies of Power Increase Nonsubstitutabillity controlling the resource – Example: control LABOUR, control TASKS, control KNOWLEDGE, DIFFERENTIATION Centrality Degree and nature of interdependence between powerholder & others. Centrality is a function of: how others are affected by you & how quickly others are affected by you. Discretion & Visibility Discretion - freedom to use judgment - rules limit discretion, limiting power - also a perception Visibility - make others aware of your presence (more face time, locate office near busy routes) - symbols communicate your power source(s) (educational diplomas, clothing [stethoscope around neck]) Power & Influence Through Social Networks Social Networks = people connected to each other through forms of interdependence Generate power through social capital = goodwill and resulting resources shared among members in a social network 3 power resources through social networks: 1. Knowledge sharing 2. Visibility3. Referent Power Social Network Ties Strong Ties - close-knit relationships - offer resources more quickly/plentifully, but less unique Weak Ties - acquaintances - offer unique resources not held by us or people in other networks Many Ties - resources increase with number of ties - limits on number of weak/ strong ties one can create Social Network Centrality A persons importance in a network. 3 Factors in centrality: 1. Betweenness 2. Degree Centrality 3. Closeness Example: „A‟ has the highest network centrality due to all 3 factors; „B‟ has the lowest centrality. Influencing Others Influence  any behaviour that attempts to alter someone‟s attitudes or behaviour - applies to one/more power bases - processes through which people achieve organizational objectives - operates up, down, and across the organizational hierarchy Types of Influences Consequences of Influence Tactics Contingencies of Influence Tactics Soft Tactics generally more acceptable than Hard Tactics! Appropriate influence tactic
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