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MHR CH 3-4 Notes Lec 2.docx

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Robin Church

1 MHR Chapter 3-4/ LEC Notes CHAPTER 3 Self-Concept: An individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations Self-enhancement: A person’s inherent motivation to have a positive self-concept (and to have other perceive him/her favourably), such as being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important Self-verification: A person’s inherent motivation to confirm and maintain his/her existing self-concept Self-efficacy: A person’s belief that he or she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and favourable situation to complete a task successfully Locus of control: A person’s general belief about the amount of control he or she has over personal life events. Social Identity theory: A theory that explains that people define themselves by the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment Perception: The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us Selective attention: The process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other information Confirmation Bias: The tendency to screen out information that is contrary to our decisions, beliefs, values, and assumptions, and to Figure 3.3 Model of the more readily accept confirming perceptual information. Process Categorical thinking: Organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory Mental models: Visual or relational images in our mind that represent the external world Stereotyping: The process of assigning traits to people on the basis of their membership in a social category (Occurs because: - Categorical thinking, -Innate drive to understand and anticipate others behaviour, - enhances our self-concept) 2 MHR Chapter 3-4/ LEC Notes Social Identity and self enhancement reinforce stereotyping through: 1. Categorization: Categorize people into groups 2. Homogenization: Assign Similar traits within a group; Different traits to other groups 3. Differentiation- Assign (usually) less favourable attributes to other groups Stereotyping Problems: Over-generalizes- doesn’t represent everyone in the category Basis of systematic and intentional discrimination Overcoming Stereotype Biases: Difficult to prevent stereotype activation  Possible to minimize stereotype application Attribution Process: The perceptual process of deciding whether an observed behaviour or even is caused largely by internal or external factors Internal Attribution: Perception that behaviour is caused by person’s own motivation or ability External Attribution: Perception that behaviour is caused by situation or fate- reasons beyond person’s control Fundamental Attribution error: The tendency to see the person rather than the situation as Figure 3.2 Rules of the main cause of that person’s behaviour attribution Self-serving bias: The tendency to Figure 3.5 Self-fulfilling attribute our favourable outcomes to prophecy cycle internal factors and our failures to external factors Self-fulfilling prophecy: The perceptual process in which our expectations about another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations Positive organizational behaviour: A perspective of organizational behaviour that focuses on building positive qualities and traits within individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on what is wrong with them. 3 MHR Chapter 3-4/ LEC Notes Halo Effect: A perceptual error whereby our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, distorts our perception of other characteristics of that person False-consensus effect: A perceptual error in which we overestimate the extent to which other have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own. Primary Effect: A perceptual error in which we quickly form an opinion of people on the basis of first information we receive about them Recency Effect: A perceptual error in which the most recent information dominates our perception of others Strategies to improve perception: 1. Awareness of perceptual biases 2. Improving self-awareness Applying Johari window 3. Meaningful interaction Figure 3.6 Johari Window Model of Self Awareness and mutual understanding Close frequent interaction toward a shared goal Engaged in a meaningful task Equal status Johari Window: A model of mutual understanding that encourages disclosure and feed back to increase our own open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas. Contact hypothesis: A theory stating that the more we interact with someone, the less prejudiced or perceptually biased we will be against that person Empathy: A persons understanding of and sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situation of others Global Mindset: An individual’s ability to perceive, appreciate and empathize with people from other cultures and to process complex cross-cultural information CHAPTER 3 RECAP 1) Describe the elements of self-concept and explain how they affect an individual’s behaviour and well-being. Self-concept includes an individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations. It has three structural dimensions: complexity, consistency, and clarity, all of which influence employee well-being, behaviour, and performance. People are inherently motivated to promote and protect their self-concept (self- enhancement) and to verify and maintain their existing self-concept (self-verification). Self-evaluation consists of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. Self-concept also consists of both personality identity and social identity. Social identity theory explains how people define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment. 4 MHR Chapter 3-4/ LEC Notes 2) Outline the perceptual process and discuss the effects of categorical thinking and mental models in that process. Perception involves selecting, organizing, and interpreting information to make sense of the world around us. Perceptual organization engages categorical thinking—the mostly non-conscious process of organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory. Mental models—internal representations of the external world—also help us to make sense of incoming stimuli. 3) Discuss how stereotyping, attribution, self-fulfilling prophecy, halo, false-consensus, primacy, and recency influence the perceptual process. Stereotyping occurs when people assign traits to others based on their membership in a social category. This economizes mental effort, fills in missing information, and enhances our self-concept, but it also lays the foundation for prejudice and systemic discrimination. The attribution process involves deciding whether an observed behaviour or event is caused mainly by the person (internal factors) or the environment (external factors). Attributions are decided by perceptions of the consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus of the behaviour. This process is subject to fund
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