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MHR CH 8 Notes Lec 3.docx

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Robin Church

1 MHR Chth notes Jan 29 2013 CHAPTER 8 Teams: Groups of two or more people who interact and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated with organizational objectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity within an organization. Advantages 1. make better decision, products/ services 2. better information sharing 3. Increase employee motivation/management  Fulfills drives to bond  Closer scrutiny by team members  Team members are benchmarks of comparison Disadvantages 1. individuals better/faster on some tasks 2. process losses 3. social loafing Figure 8.1 Types of teams in Organizations 2 MHR Chth notes Jan 29 2013 Process losses: Resources (including time and energy) expended toward team development and maintenance rather than the task Brooks’s law: The principle that adding more people to a late software project only makes it later. Also called the mythical man-month. Social Loafing: The problem that occurs when people exert less effort (and usually perform at a lower level) when working in teams than when working alone. Task interdependence: The extent to which team members must share materials, information, or expertise in order to perform their jobs Figure 8.2 Team Effectiveness model Teams better for tasks that are:  sufficiently complex (require teamwork)  can be divided into more specialized roles requiring frequent coordination  well-structured (easier to coordinate) Teams preferred with higher task interdependence  Extent that employees need to share materials, information, or expertise to perform their jobs. 3 MHR Ch 8 notes th Jan 29 2013 Team Size Smaller teams are better because:  need less time to coordinate roles and resolve differences  require less time to develop  more member involvement, thus higher commitment But team must be large enough to accomplish task Team Composition: Diversity Team members have diverse knowledge, skills, perspectives, values, etc. Advantages  view problems/alternatives from different perspectives  broader knowledge base  better representation of team’s constituents Disadvantages  take longer to become a high-performing team  more susceptible to “faultlines”  increased risk of dysfunctional conflict Team roles  A set of behaviours that people are expected to perform  Some formally assigned: others informally  Informal role assignment occurs during team development and is related to personal characteristics 4 MHR Chth notes Jan 29 2013 Team norms Informal rules and shared expectations team establishes to regulate member behaviours Norms develop through:  Initial team experiences  Critical events in teams history  Experience values members being to the team. Figure 8.3 Levels of Task Interdependence Figure 8.4 Five C's of team member competency Role: A set of behaviours that people are expected to perform because of the positions they hold in a team and organization Team building A process that consists of formal activities intended to improve the development and functioning of a work team. Norms: The informal rules and shared expectations that groups establish to regulate the behaviour of their members Team Cohesion: The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members.  Both cognitive and emotional process.  Related to the team member’s social identity 5 MHR Ch thnotes Jan 29 2013 Influences on Team Cohesion Trust: The positive expectation one person has toward another person or group in situations involving risk Figure 8.7 Three foundations of trust in teams Figure 8.6 Effect of team cohesion on task performance Self-directed teams (SDTs): Cross functional work groups that are organized around work processes that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and that have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks Virtual Teams: Teams whose members operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks Production blocking: A time constraint in team decision making due to the procedural requirement that only one person may speak at a time 6 MHR Ch 8 notes th Jan 29 2013 Evaluation apprehension: A decision making problem that occurs when individuals are reluctant to mention ideas that seem silly because they believe (often correctly) that other team members are silently evaluating them. Group think: The tendency of highly cohesive groups to value consensus at the price of decision quality Constructive Conflict: A type of conflict in which people focus their discussion on the issue while maintaining respect for people having other points
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