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MHR Chapter 10.docx

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Robin Church

Chapter 10 MHR Power the capacity: of a person team or organization to influence others Countervailing power: the capacity of a person, team or organization to keep a more powerful person or group in the exchange relationship Figure 10.1 Dependence in the power relationship Figure 10.2 Sources and contingencies of power Legitimate power: agreement among organizational members that people in certain roles can request certain behaviours of others Norm of reciprocity: a felt obligation and social expectation of helping or otherwise giving something of value to someone who has already helped or given something to you Referent power: the capacity to influence others on the basis of on identification with and respect for the power holder Charisma: a personal characteristic or special gift that serves as a form of interpersonal attraction and referent power over others Substitutability: a contingency of power referring to the availability of alternatives Centrality: a contingency of power pertaining to the degree of nature of interdependence between the power holder and others Centrality is a function of: 1. How many others are affected by you 2. How quickly others are affected by you Discretion and Visibility Discretion Visibility  The freedom to exercise judgment  Make others aware of your presence –more face  Rules limit discretion, limit power time, locate office near busy routes  Symbols communicate your power source(s)  Also a perception – acting as if you have discretion o Educational diplomas o Clothing, etc. (stethoscope around neck) Social networks: social structures of individuals or social units that are connected to each other through one or more forms of interdependence Social capital: the knowledge and other resources available to people or social units open (teams, organizations) from: a durable network that connect them to others Generate power through social capital  Goodwill and resulting resources shared among members in a social network Three power resources through social networks 1. Knowledge Sharing 2. Visibility 3. Referent Power Social Network Ties Strong Ties  Close-knit relationships (frequent, plenty of sharing, multiple roles)  Offer resources more quickly/plentifully, but less unique Weak Ties Many Ties  Acquaintances  Resources increase with number of ties  Offer unique resources not held by us or  Limits on number of weak/strong ties one people in other networks can create Social Network Centrality Person’s importance in a network Three factors in centrality: 1. Betweenness – extent you are located between others in the network (i.e. information gatekeeper) 2. Degree centrality – Number of people connected to you 3. Closeness – stronger relationships (faster/plentiful resources) Example: “A” has highest network centrality due to all three factors; “B” has lowest centrality Figure 10.3 Centrality in social networks Structural hole: an area between two or more dense social network areas that lacks network ties Influence: any behaviour to attempt to alter someone's attitudes or behaviour Coalition: a group that attempts to influence people outside the group by pooling the resources and power of its members Influence  any behaviour that attempts to alter someone’s attitudes or behaviour  Applies one or more power bases  Process through which people achieve organizational objectives  Operates up, down, and across the organizational hierarchy Consequences of influence tactics (Ppt) Upward appeal: a type of influence in which someone with higher authority or expertise is called on (in reality or) to support the influencers position Persuasion: the use of facts logical arguments and emotional appeals to change another person's beliefs and attitudes usually for the purpose of changing the person's behaviour Inoculation effect: a persuasive communication strategy of warning listeners that others will try to influence them in the future and that they should be wary about the opponent’s arguments Ingratiation: any attempt to increase liking by, or perceived similarity to, some targeted person Impression Management: The practice of actively shaping out public images Figure 10.6 Consequences of Hard and Soft influence tactics Organizational politics: behaviours that others perceive as self-serving tactics for personal gain at the expense of others people and possibly the organization Machiavellian values: the belief that deceit is a natural an acceptable way to influence others and that greeting more than one deserves is acceptable Contingencies of influence tactics Sof
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