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MHR Chapter 15.docx

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Human Resources
MHR 405
Robin Church

MHR Chapter 15 Forced Field Analysis: Kurt Lewin’s model of system wide change that helps change agents diagnose the forces that drive and restrain proposed organizational change Figure 15.1 Lewin’s force field analysis model Driving forces Push organizations toward change External forces or leader’s vision Restraining forces Resistance to change -- employee behaviours that block the change process Restraining Forces (resistance) Many Forms of Resistance e.g., complaints, absenteeism, passive noncompliance View Resistance as a Resource 1. Symptoms of deeper problems in the change process 2. A form of constructive conflict -- may improve decisions in the change process 3. A form of voice – helps procedural justice Why people resist Change 1. Direct Costs 4. Breaking Routines Losing something of value due to change Cost of moving away from our “comfort zones” Requires time/effort to learn new routines 2. Saving Face 5. Incongruent Team Dynamics Not invented here syndrome Norms contrary to the desired change 3. Fear of the Unknown 6. Incongruent Organizational Systems Risk of personal loss Systems/structures reinforce status quo Concern about being unable to adjust Career, reward, power, communication systems Creating an Urgency for Change Inform employees about driving forces Most difficult when organization is doing well Customer-driven change Adverse consequences for firm Human element energizes employees Sometimes need to create urgency to change without external drivers Requires persuasive influence Use positive vision rather than threats Minimizing Resistance to Change Communication: Learning:  Highest priority and first strategy for  Provides new knowledge/skills change  Includes coaching and other forms of  Generates urgency to change learning  Reduces uncertainty (fear of unknown)  Helps break old routines and adopt new  Problems - time consuming and costly roles  Problems - potentially time consuming and costly Involvement: Stress Mgt:  Employees participate in change process  When communication, learning, and  Helps saving face and reducing fear of involvement are not enough to minimize unknown stress  Includes task forces, future search events  Potential benefits  Problems - time-consuming, potential • More motivation to change conflict • Less fear of unknown • Fewer direct costs  Problems - time-consuming, expensive, doesn’t help everyone Negotiation: Coercion:  Influence by exchange - reduces direct  When all else fails costs  Assertive influence  May be necessary when people clearly  Radical form of “unlearning” lose something and won’t otherwise  Problems support change • Reduces trust  Problems • May create more subtle resistance • Expensive • Encourage politics to protect job • Gains compliance, not commitment Unfreezing: The first part of the organizational change process, in which the change agent produces disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces Refreezing: The latter part of the organizational change processes, in which systems and condition are introduced that reinforce and maintain the desired behaviours We tend to revert to previous behaviours and practices, unless systems and structures hold (refreeze) the desired changes. Unfreezing and changing behaviour won't produce lasting change Refreezing realigns organizational systems and team dynamics so they support the desired changes → Alter rewards to reinforce new behaviours → Change career paths → Revise information systems Figure 15.3 Strategies for diffusing change from pilot project Action Research: A problem-focused change process that combines’ action orientation (Changing attitudes and
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