Study Guides (238,076)
Canada (114,909)
MHR 405 (102)

CMHR405 - Notes for Midterm

10 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Gary Allen

CMHR405 – Midterm Covers Chs. 1, 2, 3, 4 (pp. 92 - 107), 8 (pp. 211 - 228), 9 1. Open systems’ approach/model of organizations 2. Workforce diversity 3. MARS model & work behaviour 4. Big 5 model of personality 5. Model of self-perception 6. Problems with social perception 7. How to improve social perception 8. Emotional intelligence 9. Model of emotions, attitudes & behaviour 10. Job satisfaction & its consequences 11. Models of team development 12. Team design considerations 13. How to make teams more effective 14. Choosing effective communication channels 15. Improving interpersonal communication effectiveness 16. Barriers to effective communication Ch1 – OB & Organizations Organizational behaviour – study of what people think, feel & do in organizations Organizations – compose groups of people working interdependently & interact with each other to achieve common purpose, collective entity 4 Perspectives of Organizational Effectiveness 1. Open Systems Perspective  Live within & depend on external environment for resources (eg. Marketplace, jobs)  Effective organizations: maintain close “fit” with changing conditions, transform inputs to outputs efficiently & flexibly GHOST Model  Goals: leadership, strategy  Human Resources: staff, relationships, rewards, values  Organizational Structure: jobs, departments, divisions  Technology: jobs, work processes, IT 2. Organizational Learning Perspective  Organization capacity to acquire, share, use & store valuable knowledge (organizational memory)  Intellectual capital o Human capital = skills, abilities, knowledge o Structural capital = knowledge captured & documented o Relationship capital = customers, suppliers, mutual value  Organizational Learning Processes o Knowledge acquisition – info from external environment (learn, scan, graft, experiment) o Knowledge sharing – distribute info throughout organization (communication, training, info system, observation) o Knowledge use – info application to improve organization effectiveness (awareness, autonomy, empowerment) o Knowledge storage – human memory, documentation, practices/habits, databases  Organizational Memory – store & preserve intellectual capital (keep knowledgeable employees, transferring knowledge to others, transfer human to structural capital, unlearn bad practices) 3. High Performance Work Practices Perspective  Workplace practices that leverage potential of human capital  Human capital – employee knowledge, skills & abilities = competitive advantage o Discover opportunities, minimize threats in external environment, can’t be replaced by technology 4. Stakeholder Perspective  Stakeholders – any entity who’s affected by firm’s objectives & actions; o challenges: conflict interest, limited resources  Corporate social responsibility – benefits society & environment beyond firm’s immediate financial interest/legal obligations o Financial results (economic), social benefits, environmental performance Organizational Behaviour Anchors  Multidisciplinary anchor – adopt from other disciplines, scan other fields  Systematic research anchor – built on systematic research, evidence-based management (act on knowledge)  Contingency anchor – different consequences in different situations; best under circumstance  Multiple levels of analysis anchor o Individual – attitudes, motivation, leadership o Group – teams, communication, conflict o Organization – culture, structure, change Corporate Governance – system of control & performance monitoring of management Globalization – economic, social & cultural connectivity with people in other parts of world Workforce Diversity  Better knowledge, decisions, representation, financial returns  Ethical imperative of diversity (fairness), manage challenges of diversity (teams, conflicts)  Disadvantage: communication, informal group dynamics  Surface-level diversity – observable demographic differences (race, ethnicity, gender, age, physical capabilities)  Deep level diversity – psychological characteristics of employees (personality, belief, attitude, values)  Work/life balance – minimize conflict between work & non-work demands  Virtual work – using IT perform job; telecommuting (social isolation, rely on face time, employee self-leadership) Ch2 – Individual Behaviour, Personality, & Values MARS Model of Individual Behaviour  Motivation – internal force affect person’s voluntary choice of behaviour o Direction – path engage effort o Intensity – amount of effort o Persistence – sustain  Ability – natural aptitudes (talent) & learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task o Competencies – personal characteristics that lead to superior performance (group of aptitudes) o Person – job matching (select, develop, redesign)  Role Perceptions – believes about what behaviour is required to achieve desired results o Understanding what tasks to perform, priority of tasks, preferred behaviours to accomplish tasks  Situational Factors – environmental conditions beyond individual’s short term control that constrain/facilitate behaviour o Controllable constraints: time, budget, facilities; External: economic conditions, consumer preference o Cues: signs of nearby hazards Types of Individual Behaviour  Task performance – goal-directed behaviour under person’s control  Organizational citizenship – contextual performance = cooperation & helpfulness beyond required job  Counterproductive work behaviours – voluntary behaviour could harm organization  Joining/staying with organization – agreeing to employment relationship; remain there  Maintaining work attendance – attending work @ required times Personality – enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions & behaviours that characterize a person, along with psychological processes behind those characteristics  External traits (observable behaviours), internal states (thoughts, values) 5 Factor Personality Model (CANOE) ** = most important; motivational components of personality, strongest predictors  Conscientiousness ** – careful, dependable  Agreeableness – courteous, caring, friendly (effective for jobs requiring cooperation & helpfulness)  Neuroticism/emotional stability ** – anxious, hostile  Openness to experience – sensitive, flexible (linked to higher creativity & adaptability to change)  Extroversion – outgoing, talkative (linked to sales & management performance, social interaction & persuasion) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Jung) 1. Extroversion vs. introversion 2. Perceiving information – sensing (use senses, factual, quantitative) & intuition (insight, subjective experience) 3. Judging (making decisions) – thinking (rational logic, systematic data collection) & feeling (emotions) 4. Orientation toward the external world – perceiving (flexible, spontaneous) & judging (order & structure) Schwartz Values Model  Openness to change – motivation to pursue innovative ways  Conservation – motivation to preserve status quo  Self-enhancement – motivate to promote self interest  Self-transcendence – motivate to promote welfare of others & nature Values of Cultures  Individualism – personal freedom, self-sufficiency, control over self, being unique, independence  Collectivism – group membership, harmonious  Power distance – how view authority, obedience to authority, receive commands, formal rules, bureaucracy  Uncertainty avoidance – threaten by ambiguity & uncertainty, direct communication  Achievement-nurturing – assertiveness, competitiveness, materialism, relationships Ethical Principles (Guidelines)  Utilitarianism – greatest good for greatest number of people  Individual rights – fundamental entitlements in society  Distributive justice – similar people, receive similar benefits Influences on Ethical Conduct  Moral intensity – degree that issue demands ethical principles  Ethical sensitivity – ability to recognize presence & determine relative importance to ethical issue  Situational influence – competitive pressures affecting ethical behaviour Ch3 – Perceiving Ourselves & Others in Organizations Perception – process of receiving info about & making sense of world around us Model of Self Perception Self-Concept Dimensions (3 C’s) Psychological well-being higher when people have:  Multiple self-concepts (complexity)  Similar personality & values across multiple selves (clarity)  Self concept clearly & confidently described, internally consistent & stable (consistency) 4 “Selves” of Self-Concept  Self-enhancement – promoting & protecting our positive self-view (competent, attractive, lucky, etc) o Better personal adjustment & mental/physical health; increase probability of success  Self-verification – affirming our existing self-concept; interact more with those reflect current self concept  Self-evaluation – evaluate self via self esteem, self efficacy & locus of control o High self esteem = less influenced, more persistent/logical o Self efficacy = belief in one’s motivation, ability, role perceptions & situation to succeed o Locus of control = personal control over events, internal focus  Social self – defining ourselves in terms of group membership (belong or emotional attachment) Social Perception  Receiving & interpreting info about another person; influenced by perceiver, target & situation (first impression)  Selective attention – selecting vs. ignoring sensory info o emotional markets attached to selected info o confirmation bias – info contrary to our beliefs screened out  Perceptual organization & interpretation o categorical thinking – unconscious process of organizing people/things o grouping principles (similarity, closure by fill in missing pieces, perceiving trends)  Law of closure – objects grouped together are seen as a whole  Law of similarity – items similar tend to be grouped together Stereotyping  Assign traits to people based on social category membership  Occurs: categorical thinking, innate drive to understand & anticipate others’ behaviour  Enhances our self-concept  Problems: overgeneralizes, basis of systemic & intentional discrimination  Overcoming stereotype biases: attribution process (explain cause) Perceptual Biases  Halo effect – one trait affects perception of person’s other traits  False-consensus effect – overestimate how many others have similar beliefs/traits like ours  Primacy effect – first impressions  Recency effect – most recent info dominate percept
More Less

Related notes for MHR 405

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.