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Ch 2_

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Kristyn Scott

Chapter 2 – Creative a positive work environment: attitudes, values, ethics Why is it important to create a positive work environment? • High-performing organizations produce extraordinary results that extend beyond customer service and shareholder gain • Improves faster than their competitors • These organizations are open to new ideas • Demonstrates CSR using their ethical, philanthropic, legal and economic resources in ways to benefit others • Best practice methods is the processes, practices and systems identified in an organization that are performed exceptionally well and are widely recognized as improving an organization’s performance and efficiency in specific areas • The task of management is to find and adapt industry best practices What does a positive work environment look like? • Each organization is different • 3 parts that all companies must consider if they are serious about creating and maintain a positive place to work o Organizational environment – high performing companies shows who they are, what the value and where they are going and how employees can help them get there o Culture is strong, adaptive o Leaders influence and motivate others, they create a vision and mission and help people understand what they can do to contribute o Organizational values are clear and leaders express these values in a consistent fashion, acting as role models o Communication is open and supports knowledge management, problem solving and effective coordination of work o Decision making is ethical like policies, procedures and practices are designed to achieve organizational goals o Components of a job – companies that create positive work place clearly shows the purpose of the job and how the job contributes to the success of the company and how a person can contribute to the success o Understanding individual differences – companies need to understand the difference that their employees bring and control these differences o These differences shows the attitudes of employees and the values they have Employee attitudes • Attitude is a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favour or disfavor • Workplace can create good or bad attitude for employees • Bad attitude can cause economic results such as at bank branches employees with unfavourable attitude shows lower level of sales and lower rate of sales growth Factors that influence the relationship between attitude and behavior • Factors like attitude relevance, timing of measurement, personality factors and social constraints influence the relationship between attitudes and behavior • Attitude relevance is for example, if there is a tax increase for people with income $150,000 or more, it is not relevant to a student however for people with that much income considers this issue and their attitude toward this issue would be strongly analytical of whether they would vote for the tax increase or not • The timing of measurement can also affect the relationship, for example, voter preference polls taken close to an election are more accurate than earlier polls • Personality factors also influence attitude-behaviour link (more on pg 40) • Social constraint affect the relationship between attitudes and behavior, for example a person from Afghanistan holds a negative attitude toward women in management because in his country, women are not to be in management positions, but he sees that his work group respond positively to the female supervisor so his attitude might change toward the female supervisor Work-related attitudes • 3 work-related attitudes that shows an employee’s positive feeling toward a company are job satisfaction, organizational commitment and employee engagement Job satisfaction • Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the review of a person’s job or job experiences • 5 satisfaction reasons are o Pay o The work itself o Promotion opportunities o Supervision o Co-workers • All employees create a certain set of beliefs about the terms of the exchange agreement regarding what they will do and what the organization will provide, this is called psychological contract • Job satisfaction is influenced by culture Organizational commitment • Organizational commitment (OC) is the strength of a person’s identification with an organization • 3 kinds of organizational commitment o Affective commitment – it is an employee’s intention to remain in an organization, and contains 3 factors A belief in the goals and values of the organization A willingness to put forth effort on behalf of the organization A desire to remain a member of the organization o Continuance commitment is an employee’s tendency to remain in an organization because the person cannot afford to leave o Normative commitment is a personal obligation to remain with the organization • Managers can increase affective commitment by communicating that they value employees’ contributions and they care about employees’ happiness Organizational citizenship behaviour • Organizational citizenship behavior is the behavior that employees feel and it is above and beyond the call of duty, for example if an employee decides to stay late at work without any extra pay • It is important in team-based organizations where the influence of the group can have an influence on individual citizenship behavior Employee engagement • Employee engagement is the state of emotional and intellectual involvement that employees have in their organization • Engaged employees stay within the organization, express their views • Engagement is linked with job involvement • Engaged employees speak positively about their company and does work that brings success to their companies • Job satisfaction, organization commitment and employee engagement are important work attitudes that managers can try hard to improve among their employees • It is suggested that job satisfaction increases commitment to the organization as well Attitudes, behavior and outcomes • Employees who receive value rewards are more satisfied • Employees who receive rewards that are dependent on performance, like higher performance means larger reward, tend to perform even better • Rewards influence both satisfaction and performance • When employees feel connected to the organization and feel special attachment with the organization, they will go beyond duties to perform tasks and these employees has strong citizenship behavior who enjoys working at their companies, demonstrates commitment • If employees are dissatisfied, 4 types of behavioral responses o Exit – when dissatisfied employees leave a company o Increased voice – others increase their voice by talking to managers about what can be done to improve conditions o Decreased loyalty – other employees reduce their involvement from any additional organizational activities o Increased neglect – employees chose to reduce their level of effort • Employee opinion survey is used by companies to find out what employees think about the company and how working environment can be improved • High-performing companies use the survey results as an opportunity to engage employees in working environment • Job descriptive index (JDI) measures the specific part of satisfaction by asking employees to
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