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Human Resources
MHR 405
Neil Rothenberg

CHAPTER 1 – organizational behaviour – Organizations are groups of people who work interdependently towards some purpose – Organizational behavior is a field of study that seeks understand, explain, predict, and change human behavior, both individual and collective, in the organizational context. – People study organizational behavior to understand, influence, and predict organizational events. – Organizational behavior anchors include multidisciplinary, systematic, contingency, multiple levels of analysis, and open systems anchor. – Formal organization - includes its official, legitimate, and most visible parts, such as its technology and structure. – Informal organization- includes the unofficial and less visible elements such as beliefs, assumptions, values, and unspoken norms of behaviour. – GHOST stands for goals, human resources, organizational structure, and technology. Exhibit 1.4 outlines the overall framework of organizational functioning including the GHOST model. The two-way arrows connecting the boxes within the internal organization are there to remind you that “various parts both affect and are affected by each other – Behavioural science is research that improves one’s ability to understand, predict, and influence the behavior of others. – CHAPTER 2 – creating a positive work environment – Individual factors ○ Primary diversity factors – age, gender, physical attributes, race/ethnicity/culture. ○ Secondary diversity factors – career stage, marital status, educational background, religious belief, work experience – Individual values ○ Instrumental: behaviours used to achieve end state (honesty, politeness, courage) ○ Terminal: goals representing end state (happiness, salvation, self respect, prosperity) – Job satisfaction and organizational commitment increase employee engagement. – Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experience , and is influenced by culture. – Top 5 reasons for staying in the job are : ○ The work itself – 78% ○ The co workers – 68% ○ The mission and activities of the company – 61% ○ On the job learning – 57% ○ Salary satisfaction – 53% – Organizational commitment is the strength of an individuals identification with an organization ○ Affective commitement – desire to remain ○ Continuance commitment – cannot afford to leave ○ Normative commitment – perceived obligation to remain – Employment engagement is the state of emotional and intellectual involvement that employees have in their organization – Qualities required for ethical decision making include ○ Competence to identify ethical issues and evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action ○ Self confidence to seek out different opinions about the issue and decide what is right in terms of a situation ○ Tough mindedness – willingness to make decisions when all that need to be known cannot be known and when the ethical issue had no established, unambiguous solution. CHAPTER 3 – Perception and Personality – Perception – the process through which we select, organize, and interpret information gathered by our senses in order to understand the world around us. – Perception is an automatic, unconscious process. – Perceptual process model – environmental – feeling, hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting- selective attention- organization and interpretation- emotions and behaviours – Barriers to social perception include ○ Selective attention ○ Stereotyping – a generalization about a group of people ○ Self-fulfilling prophecies – the situation in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled. ○ First impression error (primacy effect) – the tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions. – Attribution process about human behavior and outcome ○ Attribution process ○ Internal and external attribution ○ Common errors – fundamental attribution error, and self-serving bias. – To improve perceptual accuracy one can postpone judgment, reduce uncertainty, check perception, empathy, increase self-awareness. – Personality is a relative stable set of characteristics that influences an individuals behavior – Big 5 Personality Ch
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