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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405

Reasons for change, reasons for staying the same (satus quo) and reason for 6,8,9,10,11,13 1.Unfreezing: how do we stop doing the stuff that were doing that we don't wanna do anymore 2.Moving: defining where you want to get in the organization; new behaviours attiturews and values are substituted for the old 3. Refreezing: final step to find new ways of attitudes,values and behaviours which are established in the new status quo Chapter 8 there's no essay question for case study Chpt 9:Types of power/influence (might be on case) Chpt10: particular leadership approach/model. Using labels from that onto case study... What type of leadership teqniques could we use Chpt11: 2 types of conflic (personal/structual) (4 types under personal and structual) Chpt13:luin example(change model) (3 step approach, driving forces, restraining or status qou) (used in exammm !! Case study!!) Chapter 6 Communication: process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver with a goal of reaching mutual understanding Message: thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to elicit in the receiver Feedback: any information that people receive about their performance Nonverbal communication: all elements of communication that do not involve words Emotional intelligence: ability to recognize and manage emotion in oneself and others Barriers to communication: factors that block or significantly distort successful communication Low-context cultures: cultures that use language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, and ideas as clearly and logically as possible High-context cultures: cultures that value language as a way to maintain social harmony Perceptual screens: the windows though which we interact with people in the world Filtering: deleting, delaying or softening negative information as it moves up the hierarch so that it sounds favorable Active listening: process that goes beyond passively observing a speaker’s words. It consists of hearing, attending, understanding, remembering and responding Empathy: understanding and being sensitive to someone else’s feelings and thoughts Media richness: amount and variety of information a communication medium can carry Downward communication: communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level Upward communication: communication that flows to a higher level in the group or organization Chapter 8 Creativity: ability to discern new relationships, examine subjects from new perspectives and to form, new concepts from existing notions Divergent thinking: individual’s ability to generate several potential solutions to a problem Decision making: process of making choices among one or more alternatives and developing a commitment to a course of action Programmed decision: simple routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule Non-programmed decision: complex decision that requires a creative solution Effective decision: timely decision that meets a desired object and is accepted by the individuals affected by it Ethical decision: decision that is made after exploring alternates and their consequences so that actions are consistent with ones values. Rationality: logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences Bounded rationality: a theory that suggest there are limits to how rational a decision maker can be Satisfice: to select the first alternative that is good enough because the cost in times and effort are too great to optimize Heuristics: shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity Risk aversion: tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty Escalation of commitment to a losing course of action: tendency to continue to support a failing course of action Self-efficacy: individuals believe and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively Cognitive style: individual’s preference for gather information and evaluating alternatives Group polarization: tendency for a group discussion to produce shifts towards more extreme attitudes among members Devils advocacy: technique for preventing groupthink in which a group of individuals is given the role of critic during decision making Dialectical inquiry: a debate between two opposing sets of recommendations Production blocking: occurs when individuals are distracted from their own ideas while listening to others Evaluation apprehension: occurs when individuals fear that others might respond negatively to their ideas Delphi technique: structures approach to decision making which gathers the judgment of experts Chapter 9 Power: ability to control or change attitude or behavior of others Powerlessness: lack of power Legitimate power: power based on position and mutual agreements that the power holder has the right to influence another person Reward power: power based on a person’s ability to control the rewards another person wants Coercive power: power based on a person’s ability to cause an unpleasant experience Referent power: an elusive power based on interpersonal attraction Charisma: a personal trait that gives a leader referent power over followers Expert power: power based on a person’s specialized knowledge or skills that another person needs Information power: access to and control over important information Empowerment: employees make more of their own decisions through an increased sense of self- efficacy, self-determination etc. Machiavellianism: a personality characteristic indication ones willingness to do whatever it takes to get ones way Chapter 10 Leadership: the ability of an individual to
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