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Human Resources
MHR 405
Genevieve Farrell

Chapter 6  Communication process model are: a sender, a receiver, a channel, barriers, and a feedback loop, which makes the original sender also a receiver and the original receiver also a sender  Nonverbal communications include: kinesics, facial and eye behaviour, paralanguage, and proxemics  Barriers to communicate: cultural differences, perceptual screens, language/jargon, gender in communication, and a defensive communication climate  The best approach for obtaining knowledge about human behavior is systematic approach.  Workforce diversity means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity  Successful managers and entrepreneurs recognize that technical skills are necessary, but insufficient for succeeding in management.  Barriers to communication: Factors that block or significantly distort successful communications  Perceptual screens: The windows through which we interact with people in the world.  Filtering: Deleting, delaying, or softening negative information as it moves up the hierarchy, so that is sounds more favourable.  Defensive communication: in organizations can lead to a wide range of problems, including hurt feelings, communication breakdowns, alienation.  Supportive communication: in difficult circumstances, that addresses the problem at hand while seeking to preserve a positive relationship between the communicators. 1. Being descriptive rather than evaluative 2. Using specific rather than global language 3. Taking responsibility for your communications 4. Matching your words and your body language to what you are thinking and feeling Chapter 8  Divergent thinking: refers to the individual’s ability to generate several potential solutions to a problem  Creative process: 1. Preparation: seeking out new experiences and opportunities 2. Incubation: the individual engages in other pursuits while the mind considers the problem and works on it 3. Illumination: individuals senses an insight for solving the problem 4. Verification: Is conducted to determine whether the solution or idea is valid  Programmed decision: A simple, routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule  Non-programmed decision: A new, complex decision that requires a creative solution  Rationality: A logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences  Bounded rationality: A theory that suggests that there are limits to how rational a decision maker can actually be  Satisfice: to select the first alternative that is “good enough”, because the costs in time and effort are too great to optimize  Heuristics: shortcuts in decision making that save mental activity  Risk aversion: the tendency to choose options that entail fewer risks and less uncertainty  Advantages of team decision making: 1. More knowledge and information through the pooling of group member resources 2. Increased acceptance of, and commitment to, the decision, because the members had a voice in it 3. Greater understanding of the decision, because members were involved in the various stages of the decision process 4. Synergy, is a positive force that occurs in groups when group members stimulate new or better solutions through the process of mutual influence and encouragement  Disadvantages of team decision making: 1. Pressure within the group to conform and fit in 2. Domination of the group by one forceful member or a dominate clique 3. The amount of time requires, because a group makes decisions more slowly than an individual  Group polarization: the tendency for group discussion to produce shifts toward more extreme attitudes among members  Five methods that help improve group decision making: devils advocacy, dialectical inquiry, brainstorming, the nominal group technique, and the Delphi technique Chapter 9  Political behaviour: influence attempts that are for personal gain and are not officially sanctioned by an organization  Sources of power: 1. Legitimate power: is a power based on position and mutual agreement that the power holder has the right to influence another person. “ my supervisor has a right to expect me to carry out his/her instructions” 2. Reward power: based on a person’s ability to control the rewards that another person wants. 3. Coercive power: is power based on a person’s ability to cause an unpleasant experience. “my supervisor can fire me If I neglect my duties” 4. Referent power: is an elusive power based on interpersonal attractions. “My supervisor makes me feel personally accepted.” 5. Expert power: is power based on a person’s specialized knowledge or skills that the target needs. “My supervisor can provide me with needed technical knowledge 6. Information power: access to and control over important information. “The CEO’s administrative assistant has information about the CEO’s schedule that people need if they are going to get in to see him or her.”  Sanctioned influence: tactics are those approved, and that people consider acceptable because they are part of the organization’s norms  Three common reactions to power and influences attempts 1. Follower compliance- when leaders use exchange, pressure, legitimizing tactics 2. Follower commitment- most effective influence tactic; rational persuasion based on expert power 3. Follower resistance- will resist to influence attempts by their managers  Non-sanctioned influence tactics: those influence attempts that are for personal gain and are not officially sanctioned by an organization  Machiavellianism: defined as a personality characteristic indicating one’s willingness to do whatever it takes to get one’s ways. Chapter 10  Trait perspective of leadership: a perspective that proposed that leaders are most likely to have certain personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits than non-leaders  Competencies: learned behaviours such as skills, abilities, and values  Leadership agility: the ability to make wise and effective decisions amid complex changing conditions  Behavioural perspective of leadership: a perspective that proposes that effective leaders behave in certain desirable ways  Task-orientated leadership style: in which the leader spells out duties and specific tasks, tells people what to do and how to do it  Employee, people-orientated or democratic leadership style: the leader shows trust and respect engages in two-way communication, listens, and encourages.  Laissez-faire: an employee-centred leadership style in which the manager permits his or her employees to functions within prescribed limits  The Grid: 1. Organization manager: medium concern for people and production 2. Authority-compliance manager: has great concern for production and little concern for
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