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Human Resources
MHR 523
Etan Lasri

Self Awarness 00) What specific techniques were used to bring about the destruction of self-awareness among the prisoners? --> This case is about the value of the four dimensions of self-awareness. The case illustrates the techniques used in Communist prisoner-of-war camps to dissolve social support mechanisms and destroy individual self-concept. It points out the coupling between one’s social definition and self-definition. One of the strongest points illustrated is the need for a stable set of internalized principles to govern behavior. Suicides and defections were most common among prisoners without well-constructed value systems. ∙ Self-concept is argued by many to be almost completely a socially constructed concept. The old adage from social psychology, "I am what I think you think I am," is an important factor in our development of a self-concept. We are all heavily dependent on our perceptions of what we think others think of us for our feeling of self-worth. ∙ The more self-awareness and self-knowledge, the more comfortable and confident individuals are and the more they are likely to resist social pressure. That is, the unexamined life not only is not worth living, it is the most changeable and unstable. Self-understanding leads to stability and consistency. ∙ Self-awareness is a process, not a state; consequently, it is never completed. It is a lifelong journey. ∙ Self-knowledge creates confidence and stability. The same is true for a well-developed, consistent set of values. When social pressures were brought to bear on prisoners of war, those who folded first were those without a foundation in values and self-confidence. They relied heavily on social perception for the definitions. The chapter stresses that self-awareness is crucial to personal progress in the midst of contradictory, ambiguous, and nonreinforcing circumstances facing all managers as they become increasingly successful. The major technique used by the Chinese Communists in changing self-concepts (both in the post-1949 thought reform of the Chinese people and with prisoners of war) as noted in the writings of Mao Tse-tung: ∙ Form a cohesive team that individuals identify with and feel very much a part of. ∙ Use the group to break down the self-concept and self-identity of the individual, mainly by identifying weaknesses, transgressions, faults, and shortcomings. Do this by isolating the individual, requiring public confessions, writing personally critical autobiographies, and subjecting the individual to many group interrogations and defenses of actions. ∙ Substitute a new idealogy as the solution to the negative feelings of self-worthlessness and sin. "The party" or the adoption of a new world view is the only way to reconstruct the now-destroyed self-confidence.61-62, +)What opposite processes could be used to create the reverse process, a strengthening of the self-concept?61-62, +2) Assume that you are charged with the orientation of a cohort of new managers in your organization. How would you help them understand their own strengths and inclinations and how they could best contribute? +3) What mechanisms do people use, and what mechanisms could the prisoners of war have used, to resist a change in their self-concepts?58-59 94) What could be done to reform or rebuild the self-awareness of these prisoners? What can be done to help individuals without self-awareness to improve that skill?: 59-60 95) How did prisoners protect their self-esteem and self-respect? 79-83 96) In the situation of these prisoners of war, what demonstrates that individuals tend to avoid new self- knowledge?58-59 97) What did the somewhat more advanced prisoners do to overcome the threat-rigidity response of less reformed prisoners? 58-59 98) What likely happened to the sensitive line of less reformed prisoners? Provide justification for your answer. 99) Which of the five core aspects of self-concept were the prison camps structured to change? Provide justification for your answer. Managing Personal Stress 82) Explain each of the three stages of how people can react to stress. Then, identify the stage or stages where individuals use defense mechanisms. Finally, define and provide an example for each of 5 defense mechanisms individuals may use. --> The three stages of reacting to stress include (1) Alarm stage Characterized by acute increases in anxiety or fear if the stressor is a threat or by increases in sorrow or depression if the stressor is a loss; (2) Resistance stage Defense mechanisms predominate in this stage, and the body begins to store up excess energy; and (3) Exhaustion stage Stage at which stress is so pronounced as to overwhelm defenses or so enduring as to outlast available energy for defensiveness; pathological consequences may result. When discussing the resistance stage, students should identify and provide an appropriate example for each of the following defense mechanisms: (1) Aggression Involves attacking the stressor directly; may also involve attacking oneself, other people, or objects; (2) Regression Involves adopting a behavior pattern or response that was successful at some earlier time; (3) Repression Involves denial of stressor, forgetting, or redefining the stressor; (4) Withdrawal May take both psychological and physical forms; individuals may engage in fantasy, inattention, or purposive forgetting, or they may actually escape from the situation itself; and (5) Fixation Involves persisting in a response regardless of its effectiveness. 114-115 83) Compare and contrast the four major kinds of stressors. --> (1) Time stressors Result from having too much to do in too little time; time stressors focus on issues of time rather than issues about other people, life conditions, and future events. Yet, people, life situations, and future events can all add to time stress. Time stressors are the most common type of stress among managers. (2) Encounter stressors Result from interpersonal interactions; burnout is caused mostly by these stressors. (3) Situational stressors Arise from the environment in which a person lives (working conditions and changes in a person's life); these stressors are mostly external to a person or outside of him/her whereas time stressors and encounter stressors are often internal to a person. (4) Anticipatory stressors Worrying about things that haven't happened yet. See Table 1 for additional information. 117-120 Mini-Case: Mary is currently going to college "full-time"; after four years, she is finally a junior! ……….I never seem to have enough hours in the day to get everything done! 84) Indicate the main type of stressor(s) Mary experienced on each day she recorded a journal entry. Provide support for your answer. --> On Tuesday, Mary experienced encounter stress. On Wednesday, Mary experienced situational stress. On Thursday, Mary experienced anticipatory stress. On Friday, Mary experienced time stress. In providing support, students should relate relevant chapter concepts to justify their choices of the type of stressor(s) Mary experienced; student responses related to support/justification will vary.117-120 85) Describe the difference(s) between managing time effectively as opposed to efficiently. Describe the key aspects related to managing time using an effectiveness approach. --> Time management using an effectiveness approach involves aligning time use with core personal principles whereas managing time using an efficiency approach involves an emphasis on accomplishing more by reducing wasted time. The most commonly prescribed solutions for attacking problems of time stress are to use calendars and planners, to generate to-do lists, and to learn to say "no." However, these approaches address the efficiency approach to time management. Managing time using an effectiveness approach means that (1) individuals spend their time on important matters, not just urgent matters; (2) people are able to distinguish clearly between what they view as important versus what they view as urgent; (3) results rather than methods are the focus of time management strategies; and (4) people have a reason not to feel guilty when they must say "no." An extremely useful tool to manage time effectively is the "time management matrix" in which activities are categorized in terms of their relative importance and urgency. Important activities are those that produce a desired result. They accomplish a valued end, or they achieve a meaningful purpose. Urgent activities are those that demand immediate attention. They are associated with a need expressed by someone else, or they relate to an uncomfortable problem or situation that requires a solution as soon as possible. See Figure 4 for additional information related to the time management matrix.121-125 86) Explain in simple terms the ability of social intelligence. --> Simply put, social intelligence refers to the ability to manage your relationships with other people. It consists of four main dimensions: 1. An accurate perception of others' emotional and behavioral responses 2. The ability to cognitively and emotionally understand and relate to others' responses 3. Social knowledge, or an awareness of what is appropriate social behavior 4. Social problem solving, or the ability to manage interpersonal difficulties…129 87) Identify the stressor work redesign focuses on eliminating. Explain the key components of Hackman's model of job redesign and provide examples of how the model can be applied to reduce stress-producing job strain. --> Work redesign focuses on eliminating situational stressors. Hackman's model of job redesign has proved effective in reducing stress and increasing satisfaction and productivity. It consists of five aspects of work: (1) Skill variety the opportunity to use multiple skills in performing work; (2) Task identity the opportunity to complete a whole task; (3) Task significance the opportunity to see the impact of the work being performed; (4) Autonomy the opportunity to choose how and when the work will be done; and (5) Feedback the opportunity to receive information on the success of task accomplishment. Ways the model can be applied to reduce stress- producing job strain include combining tasks, forming identifiable work units, establishing customer relationships, increasing decision-making authority, and opening feedback channels.130-131 88) Outline and explain how one might reduce his/her anticipatory stress. --> (1) Prioritizing Determine what is important in the long term and stay true to it; (2) Goal setting Focus on immediate goal accomplishments; and (3) Small wins Break the goal down at the beginning and change something that is relatively easy to change. Build momentum.132-133 89) Identify the key activities that characterize most people's lives. Explain the approach(es) one should use in balancing these activities in order to develop resiliency. Why is it counterproductive to devote more time and attention to an activity in which one is experiencing stress? --> The key activities that characterize most individuals' lives include cultural activities, family activities, intellectual activities, physical activities, social activities, spiritual activities, and work activities. The most resilient individuals are those who have achieved a certain degree of life balance. They actively engage in each of the activities so that they achieve a degree of balance in their lives. Individuals who are best able to cope with stress spend time developing a variety of dimensions of their lives. Overemphasizing one or two activities to the exclusion of others often creates more stress than it eliminates. When an individual feels stress in one area of life, such as an overloaded work schedule, he/she typically responds by devoting more time and attention to it. Although this is a natural reaction, it is counterproductive for several reasons. First, the more one concentrates exclusively on work, the more restricted and less creative one becomes loses perspective, ceases to take fresh points of view, and becomes overwhelmed more easily. Second, refreshed and relaxed minds think better. Third, the costs related to stress decrease markedly when employees participate in well-rounded wellness programs.134-136 90) Explain the major behavioral tendencies associated with a Type A personality. --> The major behavioral tendencies include competitiveness (high desire to be dominant, to win); life imbalance (high involvement with work with very little involvement with anything else in the person's life); hostility and anger (become upset over trivial issues); and impatience/urgency (have no patience). See Table 8 for additional characteristics of the Type A personality.: 139-141 91) Explain the major techniques that can be used on a short-term or temporary basis to reduce stress. --> Muscle relaxation Involves easing the tension in successive muscle groups. Deep breathing exercises Involve taking several successive, slow, deep breaths, holding them for five seconds, and exhaling completely. Imagery and fantasy Involve visualizing an event, using "mind pictures" (for example, an athlete visualizes achieving a specific goal). Imagery can also include recollections of sounds, smells, and textures associated with pleasant experiences from the past that can be recalled vividly. Fantasies are make-believe events or images that can be comforting when one encounters stress. Rehearsal Involves working through a potentially stressful situation, trying out different scenarios and alternative reactions. Appropriate reactions can be rehearsed, often in a safe environment before stress occurs. Reframing Involves temporarily reducing stress by optimistically redefining a situation as manageable. 144-145 The Turn of the Tide: Not long ago I came to one of those bleak periods that many of us encounter from time to time, a sudden drastic dip in the graph of living when everything goes stale and flat, energy wanes, and enthusiasm dies. ……………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………….etc 92) What is effective about these strategies for coping with stress, and why did they work? --> The case illustrates a positive way to cope with stress on a temporary basis. The formula followed by Arthur Gordon is not exactly that discussed in the text, but the principles are the same. The case clearly illustrates the practical use of several temporary coping mechanisms, such as imagery and fantasy and refraining. A major point made in the chapter is that this kind of temporary coping mechanism can offer release, but we can avoid the tension and stress in the first place if we use resiliency and proactive stress management strategies.144-145 93) What troubles, challenges, or stressors do you face right now to which these prescriptions might apply?144-145 94) Are these prescriptions effective coping strategies or merely escapes?144-145 95) What other prescriptions could the author take besides the four mentioned here? Generate your own list based on your own experiences with stress. --> This answer should include some of proactive or enactive strategies, rather than the reactive ones. These include changing the environment causing the stress, increasing physiological resilience (through diet and exercise), etc. 96) Which of the four key sources of stress were most dealt with by the doctor’s prescribed therapy? Provide justification for your answer. --> Though much of the exercise was focused on short-term stress reduction, the final prescriptions pointed the author in the direction of a personal statement of principles, which should help him become more effective with his time. As a result, the time stressors are addressed most fully. A convincing argument may also be made that the true purpose of the "prescriptions" was a journey of self- awareness, leading to increased emotional intelligence, which will eliminate encounter stressors.121-124 97) How was the stressed man’s emotional intelligence developed through the beach experience? Provide justification for your answer. --> Emotional intelligence can be developed though increased self-awareness and self-discovery. Once the man's knowledge of himself and his emotions increased, so too did his ability to interact constructively with others. 129-130 98) How does the beach therapy experience compare to the guidelines provided in the text for deep relaxation techniques. --> It follows them hardly at all. The guidelines provided in the text are (1) a quiet environment in which external distractions are minimized, (2) a comfortable position, (3) a mental focus on a single object, (4) controlled breathing, (5) a passive attitude, (6) focused body changes, and (7) repetition. Mostly, just the first guideline is fulfilled by the beach therapy experience the quiet environment without distractions.142-143 The Case of the Missing Time: At approximately 7:30 a.m. on Tuesday, June 23, 1959, Chet Craig, manager of the Norris Company’s Central Plant, swung his car out of the driveway of his suburban home and headed toward the plant located some six miles away, just inside the Midvale city limits. It was a beautiful day. 99) What principles of time and stress management are violated in this case? --> The missing time case illustrates poor stress management. Chet violates a variety of time- and stress- management principles, although he sincerely tries to improve. It also shows that people often are not good judges of their own competence in stress and time management. Chet would probably rate himself as a relative skilled person in these areas. However, comparing his activities with the principles in the text suggest that Chet’s skill level is not very high.Students might identify the following problems: Span of control too wide No formalized reporting Little delegation No supervisors over unit foremen No planning time Office manager needs authority Excessive plant tours Centralized decision making Upward delegation No staff coordinating meetings 121-128 100) What are the organizational problems in the case? 101) Which of Chet’s personal characteristics inhibit his effective management of time? --> Answers may include that he sincerely wants to help others (which can contribute to his failing to delegate matters), that he overestimates his ability to accomplish tasks at hand, that he gets easily distracted, that he tends to handle problems himself (upward delegation) instead of making people do their own job. 102) If you were hired as a consultant to Chet, what would you advise him? --> He needs to make some organizational and personal changes to improve both the efficiency and effectiveness of his time. (See complete list in text; a partial list includes remedying the problems listed below.) Also necessary is a list of priorities and effective use of goals. 103) What are some small wins that Chet could work toward? --> Perhaps he should keep track of his efforts in delegation. First, to delegate two tasks per day. Once he has achieved that, he can go up to 4 or 5. Another idea is that he can break his long-term creative projects into smaller, more manageable units. Chet seems discouraged that he is unable to bring the project to pass. However, it seemed like he made some progress on it despite the distractions. Planning and goal-setting more methodically (including the use of small wins) will allow Chet to reduce his stress levels and increase his job performance. 104) What collaboration would you suggest Chet should consider? --> Collaboration, which helps eliminate encounter stress, can be achieved by setting up work teams. In this situation, it appears that Chet feels isolated because he individually deals with employees and problems in the plant. One step he should consider is to hire an assistant. Another he should consider is to set up special work teams to brainstorm and generate creative ideas. This would help him feel more of a sense of community. 105) Should Chet consider work redesign? Why or why not? --> Probably not. While work redesign helps eliminate situational stressors that arise in the workplace, it is typically oriented toward increasing freedom and autonomy for lower-level workers. Here, Chet's primary problem is that he lacks sufficient time; it is not that Chet lacks the decision-making ability to change his situation. Solving Problems Analytically and Creatively Admiral Kimmel's Failure at Pearl Harbor In the summer of 1941, as relations between the United States and Japan were rapidly deteriorating, Admiral Kimmel, ……… 99) Identify the conceptual blocks that are illustrated in this case. --> This case shows the rigidity that develops as a result of violating several principles of creative problem solving. A class discussion uses the questions at the end of the case as a focus. The following are brief answers to the questions. At least the following five conceptual blocks are present:  Vertical thinking (not considering other alternatives to past strategies  Artificially constraining problems ("The Japanese . . . would not launch an attack against any American possession.")  Past experiences causing stereotyping (Kimmel continually received "assurances from the members of his in-group" that confirmed past decisions)  Lack of inquisitiveness ("Kimmel failed to inquire" about several messages he received)  Not separating figure from ground ("He and his advisors devoted considerable attention to the exact wording [of the memo]." 100) Outline the problem-solving steps followed by Kimmel and his advisors. What steps in analytical problem solving were skipped or short-circuited? Kimmel clearly used a participative decision style, but he also generated limited alternatives and selected the easiest satisfactory solution. His inclination was to logically analyze memos in detail, but to maintain the status quo. Almost any of the principles listed in the text could aid information gathering and alternative generation. Often managers in organizations surround themselves with at least some individuals who take a confrontational, challenging role. This helps guard against "groupthink," stimulates information gathering from a wider variety of sources, and avoids the tendency to make overly restrictive assumptions. Another structure Kimmel could have used was a formal information gathering and checking unit. When unclear memos were received, that unit would obtain additional information. 174-178 101) If you were Admiral Kimmel's advisor, knowing what you know about problem solving, what would you have suggested to help his problem-solving processes? What kinds of conceptual blockbusters could have been useful to Kimmel?.194-196 102) What do you learn from this case that would help you advise Microsoft in its anticompetitive case with the federal government, or advise Barnes & to displace, or advise American Greetings to become the dominant player in the greeting card business? What practical hints, in other words, do you derive from this classic case of analytical problem solving gone awry? .: 194-196 103) If you had to define the problem that caused Pearl Harbor to be unprepared for attack, how would you define the problem? What characteristics do you want in your problem definition? 174-178 104) How could Kimmel and his advisors better evaluate and select alternative solutions to the problem of uncertainty about possible attack?194-196 105) In the information given to Kimmel about possible attack, what themes and commonalities did Kimmel and his advisors miss? What block does ignoring commonalities relate to? How can this block be overcome?187-190 Building Relationships by Communicating Supportively 98) Explain the types of communication that invalidate people. Describe the attributes of validating communication. Provide specific examples. Answer: Communication that is invalidating arouses negative feelings about self-worth, identity, and relatedness to others. It denies the presence, uniqueness, or importance of other individuals. Communication is invalidating when it denies the other person an opportunity to establish a mutually satisfying relationship or when contributions cannot be made by both parties. Communications that invalidate people include conveying superiority, rigidity, indifference, and imperviousness. Superiority-oriented communication can take the form of put-downs, in which the others are made to look bad so the communicator looks good, or it can take the form of one-upmanship, in which the communicator tries to elevate him- or herself in the esteem of others. Another form of this type of communication is the use of jargon, acronyms, or words used in such a way as to exclude others or to create barriers in a relationship. Rigidity relates to communication that is portrayed as absolute, unequivocal, or unquestionable. No other opinion or point of view could possibly be considered. People who communicate in dogmatic, know-it-all ways often do so in order to minimize others' contributions. Rigidity can also be conveyed in the following ways: reinterpreting all other viewpoints to conform to one's own; having an answer for everything; appearing unwilling to tolerate criticisms or alternative points of view; reducing complex issues to simplistic definitions. Indifference occurs when the other person's existence or importance is not acknowledged. A person may do this by using silence, by making no verbal response to the other's statements, by avoiding eye contact or any facial expression, by interrupting the other person frequently, by using impersonal words, or by engaging in unrelated activities during a conversation. Imperviousness means the communicator does not acknowledge the feelings or opinions of the other person. They are either labeled illegitimate or they are labeled as ignorant. Being impervious means to ignore or make unimportant the personal feelings or thoughts of another. It serves to exclude the other person's contribution to the conversation or the relationship. Validating communication helps people feel recognized, understood, accepted, and valued. Attributes of validating communication are egalitarian, flexible, two-way, and based on agreement. Respectful, egalitarian communication is especially important when a person in a higher status interacts with a person in a lower status. Communicators using an egalitarian approach treat subordinates as worthwhile, competent, and insightful and emphasize joint problem solving rather than projecting a superior position. Flexibility involves the willingness of the communicator to indicate to another person that he/she may possess additional data, and that other alternatives exist that may make significant contributions to the problem solution or relationship. It means indicating genuine humility and a willingness to learn; it also involves being open to new experiences and new insights. Two-way communication is an implied result of respectfulness and flexibility. Individuals feel validated when they are asked questions, given airtime to express their opinions, and encouraged to participate actively in the conversation. Two-way interchange communicates the message that subordinates are valued by managers and that an atmosphere of collaboration and teamwork exists. Identifying areas of agreement and joint commitment is the final attribute. One way to express validation based on agreement is to identify positive behaviors and attitudes as well as negative ones during a coaching and counseling session. A manager should point out important points made by a subordinate before pointing out trivial ones, areas of agreement before areas of disagreement, advantages of the subordinate's statements before disadvantages, and compliments before criticism. 251-252 99) Explain the major response types used in supportive listening. Provide the key advantages and disadvantages for each response type. Answer: (1) Advising Provides direction, evaluation, personal opinion, or instructions. This response imposes on the communicator the point of view of the listener, and it creates listener control over the topic of conversation. Advantages Helps communicator understand something that may have been unclear before, helps identify a problem solution, and can provide clarity about how the communicator should interpret the problem. Disadvantages Can produce dependence; creates impression the communicator is not being understood by the listener; shifts focus from communicator's issue to the listener's advice; can imply that communicators don't have the necessary understanding, expertise, insight, or maturity; i.e., implies incompetence. (2) Deflecting Switches the focus from the communicator's problem to one selected by the listener; the listener turns the attention away from the original problem. Advantages Most appropriate when a comparison or some reassurance is needed, can provide empathy and support, can convey assurance that things will be fine. Disadvantages Can imply communicator's message is not important or that the experience of the listener is more significant than that of the communicator, may produce competitiveness or feelings of being one-upped by the listener; may change the subject from an important topic to a topic not as important. (3) Probing Involves asking a question about what the communicator just said or about a topic selected by the listener. Advantages Acquires additional information; helps communicator say more about the topic, helps listener foster more appropriate responses; helps listener adopt communicator's frame of reference so that in coaching situations suggestions can be specific and in counseling situations statements can be descriptive. Disadvantages Can have the unwelcome effect of switching focus of attention from the communicator's statement to the reasons behind it; can serve as a mechanism for escaping discussion of a topic or for maneuvering the topic to one the listener wants to discuss; can allow communicator to lose control of the conversation, especially when difficult topics need to be addressed. (4) Reflecting Purpose is to mirror back to the communicator the message that was heard and to communicate understanding and acceptance of the person. Advantages Allows speaker to feel listened to, understood, and free to explore the topic in more depth; allows supportive listeners to contribute meaning, understanding, and acceptance to the conversation while still allowing communicators to pursue topics of their choosing; can provide the clearest communication, the most two-way exchanges, and the most supportive relationships of all the response types. Disadvantages Communicators can get an impression opposite from the one intended; can be perceived as an artificial technique or as a superficial response to a message.256-260 ccc: Investing in the 90s. Your inheritance from your Uncle Bruce has just arrived. You have decided to invest the $5,000. The following conversation took place with John, Morgan, and Ivan……etc Principles of Supportive Communication Advising, Deflecting, Probing, Reflecting Skill: Understanding/Analysis Situation #1: Advising; Situation #2: Deflecting; Situation #3: Clarification probe; Situation #4: Elaboration probe; Situation #5: Repetition probe: 256-260 Cc: Find Somebody Else Ron Davis, the relatively new general manager of the machine tooling group at Parker Manufacturing, was visiting one of the plants….etc aa: This case illustrates poor communication between a superior and a subordinate. The following statements violated the following principles of supportive communication: First statement, by Ron: Tends to be evaluative, will cause defensiveness from the outset. Owns rather than disowns feedback. Second statement, by Mike: Indicates defensiveness; person oriented; confrontative approach will produce mutual defensiveness. Third statement, by Ron: Attempts being problem oriented, validating, and descriptive. Fourth statement, by Mike: Still person oriented, not problem oriented; global, not specific; nonsupportive listening. Fifth statement, by Ron: Evaluative rather than descriptive; advising rather than asking for alternatives; implied accusations; nonspecific. Sixth statement, by Mike: Still defensive; still nonspecific; avoids discussing problem definition or problem solutions. This case violated nearly every principle of supportive communication. Instead of beginning the conversation with an attitude of joint problem solving, Ron was immediately evaluative and put Mike on the defensive. Mike in turn, never did accept the legitimacy of the meeting and refused to collaborate with Ron in solving the problems. The interaction could have been more productive if Ron had begun with some validating statements (e.g., compliments, description of successes) to reduce Mike's defensiveness and had relied primarily on descriptive statements rather than evaluative statements. All the burden for change should not necessarily rest with Mike. Ron may need to alter some expectations as well. Interpersonal hostility almost always takes precedence over task-related issues. Because Mike feels so defensive around Ron, it is unlikely that the task-related problems will be resolved satisfactorily. Therefore, the priority problem is getting Ron and Mike to agree to work to solve the other problems together. This requires attention to the interpersonal relationship first. That is, subsequent discussions should focus on improving the communication process before resuming communication about content issues. Cc: Rejected Plans Case SUSETTE: LEONARDO: SUSETTE: 108) Categorize each statement in the case according to the supportive communication characteristic or type of response it represents. For example, the first statement by Leonardo obviously is not very congruent, but the second one is much more so. Aaa: This case illustrates a variety of response types that produce a helpful result. One lesson to be learned from this case is that outright advice is frequently not helpful because it may produce defensiveness through invalidation or superiority/inferiority feelings and because it does not produce the same level of commitment to changing or improving. In this case, Bob was allowed to clarify his feelings and formulate a plan of action that would lead to problem resolution. Statement, By, Principles Illustrated: Sue Probing. Leo Incongruence, avoidance, Sue Reflective, Leo Global (not specific), more congruence, Sue Understanding/reflective, Leo Some evaluation of Peterson, description of event, Sue Probing, conjunctive, Leo Probing, Sue Pacifying, validating, probing, Leo Descriptive, Sue Probing, Leo Descriptive, Sue Validating, understanding/reflective, Leo Congruence, owning, Sue Agreement, diverting, focus on feelings, Leo Evaluative, disowning, Sue Reinterpretive , Leo Validating, probing, Sue Understanding, Leo Congruence, owning, Sue Validating, somewhat confrontive, probing, Leo Congruence, owning, descriptive, Sue Reinterpretive, conjunctive, Leo Conjunctive, validating, owning, Sue Validating, reinterpretive, Leo Congruence, probing , SueProbing, evaluation (advice), confrontive Leo Validating, descriptive, owning , Sue Understanding, reflective, Leo Specific, owning 109) Which statements in the conversation were most helpful? Which were least helpful or could have produced defensiveness or closed off the conversation? Gaining Power and Influence In order for managers to empower effectively, they must enhance the following qualities in their subordinates: 1. Self-efficacy: ―I can do it attitude‖ 2. Self-determination: Internal locus of control, I have choices 3. Personal consequence: what I do has an impact 4. Meaning: what I do adds value 5. Trust: I will be treated fairly and equitably There are 9 specific prescriptions to generating empowerment (see practical suggestions on p. 460): 1. Articulating a clear vision and goals 2. Facilitating personal mastery experiences 3. Modeling or demonstrating the desired behavior 4. Providing Support 5. Replacing negative emotions with positive ones 6. Providing information 7. Providing resources 8. Providing connection to outcomes 9. Creating confidence Ten Delegation Principles 1. Begin with the end in mind: the desired results of the delegated task must be clear. 2. Delegate completely. Indicate the expected level of initiative. 3. Allow participation in the delegation of assignments 4. Establish parity between authority and responsibility 5. Delegate to the lowest organizational level at which a job can be done. 6. Provide adequate support for delegated tasks 7. Focus accountability on results. Do not micromanage. 8. Delegate consistently 9. Avoid upward delegation 10. Clarify consequences Violated empowerment guidelines a) by Ken Hoffman: 1 – 3 – 4 – 6 – 9 Mr Hoffman failed to provide Ruth with clear performance guidelines of where her branch should be taken. He wrongly assumed she knew and gave her no directions, set no boundaries. Neither he demonstrated his desired behaviors. Even when she made her first ―mistake‖ by hiring an Inventories assistant, he failed to provide her with information, guidelines, a budget, a procedures manual. By micro-managing Ruth, Hoffman is not creating much confidence on her. Hoffman should have taken this first opportunity to meet with Ruth and establish clear, general guidelines; a list of can's and cannot's, must's and must not's. Ruth had given clear indications of initiative and desire to make her store one of the best, if not the best. Hoffman had been ―twice warned‖ and still did not act in consequence. If store rules indicate that no charge could be made over $1000 for any reason, Hoffman should instead encourage Ruth to double check with him on these ―particular‖ occasions. By doing so, Hoffman would be demonstrating his desired behavior to Ruth. Instead he said: ―‖you need to learn to use your head.‖ Three strikes, Hoffman is out. Still he did not ask for a clarification meeting with Ruth. b) by Ruth Cummings: unless you have been given specific authority to hire or fire personnel, it is a good idea to check it first with your upline. Also, one should always follow corporate salary guidelines in order to avoid conflicts. After
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