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MHR523 Chapter 7 to 13 Review FULL.docx

16 Pages

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 523
Margaret Yap

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Chapter 7 orientation/ training/ development 1. What/why/who and how? ➢ Onboarding is a series of aligned strategic process that take into account all of the new employees’early experience ○It provide tools, resources, and knowledge to become successful and productive ○Successful onboarding increase employees engagement, and reduce the time of a new hire takes to get up to speed in their job ➢ Orientation involves those activities that introduce the employee to the organization ○To reduce turnover, reduce errors, develop clear expectation, improve job performance, organizational stability, reduce anxiety, reduce grievances, reduce need for discipline ○HR professional to under how to engage a new employee right from the beginning ○By formal orientation program familiarize new employees with their roles ➢ Training and development is a strategic tools ○Training is short term. Development is mid to long term ○Training objective - desired behaviour, conditions and performance criteria ○Training Goal: enhance skills in current job ○Development Goal: optimize potential -future developmental/growth opportunities ○Training Range: individual ○Development Range: group/organization ○Human resources development(HRD) leverages these skills and competencies so these resources can continue to make meaningful contributions to the organization over the long term. ○HRD - a part of human resources management that integrates that use of training and employee and career development effort to improve individual, group, and organizational effectiveness ○Training method: programmed instruction, role plays, job shadowing, simulation, self-study ○Development method: Coaching, counselling, mentoring, conferences, case study, simulations, job rotations 2. How do we evaluate effectiveness? ➢ Approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of orientation programs ○Reactions from new employees ○Effects of socialization on job attitudes and roles ○Degree to which the program is economical ○Continued use of orientation resources ➢ Evaluation of T&D ○reaction ○knowledge ○behaviour ○organizational results 3. What are the challenges? ➢ Global competition has forced companies to flatten structures and reduce employees ➢ Teed to foster life-long learning to attract and retain multi-skilled employees ➢ Training is needed to work effectively with diverse employees ➢ Development in information technologies require new skills and training strategies Chapter 8 Performance Management (pg 302 - 322) 1. Why do it? ➢ Organizations try to achieve the following: (performance management system goals) ○Transform organizational objectives into clearly understood, measurable outcomes ○Provide instruments for measuring, managing, and improving the success of the organization ○Include measures of quality, cost, speed to provide an in-depth, predictive system ○Shift to an ongoing, forward-looking strategic partnership between management and employees 2. Who does it? ➢ HR department 3. Uses of performance appraisal information ➢ Performance appraisal ○The process by which organizations evaluate employee job performance ○Provides data to assess every employee ➢ Uses of performance appraisal information ○Feedback and performance improvement ○Administrative decisions ○Employee development and career planning ○Criteria for test validation ○Training program objectives ○Job re-design 4. Criteria for effective goals/objectives ➢ Performance objectives ➢ performance goals ➢ Performance measurement ➢ Output measures ➢ Outcome measures 5. Method: advantages & disadvantages ➢ Noncomparative evaluation methods ○advantages ■ Use scales or reports with performance criteria developed by supervisors or a committee. ○disadvantages ■ Do not compare one employee against another ➢ Comparative evaluation methods ○advantages ■ Useful for deciding merit pay increases, promotions, and organizational rewards because they can result in a ranking of employees from best to worst. ○disadvantages ■ They too are subject to bias and offer little job-related feedback. ➢ 6. Rater’s errors and how to avoid them???? ➢ Rater biases ○Halo effect - Avoid supervisor to rate anyone that have a relationship with him/her. ○Error of central tendency - Human resource departments sometimes unintentionally encourage this behaviour by requiring raters to justify extremely high or low ratings. ○Leniency and strictness biases - ○Personal prejudice - Human resource specialists should pay close attention to prejudice in appraisals, since it prevents effective evaluations and violates anti discrimination laws. ○Recency effect - ○Contrast errors - Human resource specialists can reduce the distortion from biases through training, feedback, and the proper selection of performance appraisal techniques 7. Elements/characteristics of an effective performance appraisal system ➢ Validity ➢ Reliability ➢ Input into development ➢ Acceptable standards ➢ Acceptable goals ➢ Control of standards ➢ Frequency of feedback ➢ Rater training ➢ Ratee training ➢ Input into interview process ➢ Appraisal consequences ➢ Different sources (raters) Chapter 9 Total Rewards & P4P 1. What are total rewards? ➢ An integrated package of all rewards gained by employees arising from their employment. ➢ Cash or non-cash, extrinsic and intrinsic ➢ Compensation ➢ Benefits ➢ Social interaction ➢ Security ➢ Status/recognition ➢ Work variety ➢ Workload ➢ Work importance ➢ Autonomy ➢ Advancement ➢ Feedback ➢ Work conditions ➢ Development opportunity 2. Job evaluation methods ➢ Job Ranking ➢ Job Grading ➢ Point System 3. Compensable factors, grades and ranges 4. What is Pay equity ➢ Equal pay for equal work: equal pay for all employees in an establishment performing the same kind and amount of work, regardless of sex, race, or other characteristics of individual workers not related to ability or performance; part of the Canadian Human Rights Act. ➢ Pay equity; equal pay for work of equal value. It is illegal for companies to pay women less than men if their jobs involve equal skills, effort, responsibilities, and conditions. 5. What is P4P? Why P4P? ➢ Incentive Pay or Variable Pay ➢ Plan that links pay to productivity, profitability, or some other measure of organizational performance ➢ Accurate performance appraisal or measurable outcomes is a precondition for effective pay-for-performance plans ➢ Individual or group; short-term or long-term 6. Long term/ short term; Group/ individual advantages and disadvantages 7. Advantages and disadvantages of pay secrecy 8. Three factors that lead to better performance Chapter 10 Benefits (pg 366 - 383) 1. Strategic role of benefits: societal, organizational and employee objectives ➢ The Strategic Role of Employee Benefits ○Benefits are indirect financial payments given to employees ○Examples: health benefits, life insurance, pensions, vacations, etc. ➢ Societal Objectives ○To solve social problems and provide security for interdependent wage earners ○Employers can deduct the costs of benefits as a business expense ○Employees receive most benefits tax-free ○Benefits and services give many employees financial security against illness, disability, and retirement ➢ Organizational Objectives ○Must offer to recruit and retain ○Help reduce fatigue and may enhance productivity e.g. rest breaks, vacations ○Discourage labour unrest ○Satisfy employee objectives ○Aid recruitment and reduce turnover ○Minimize overtime cost ➢ Employee Objectives ○Lower costs and availability ○Lower income taxes ○Primary objective may be to obtain benefits and services e.g. supplemental health and life insurance 2. Government-legislated (federal/provincial); who pays? Source of Protection Legislating Government Minimum-wage acts Federal and provincial Canada Pension Plan (CPP) Federal (except in Quebec) Employment insurance (EI) Federal Workers’compensation acts Federal and provincial Health insurance plans Provincial Holiday and Vacations (2 weeks) Federal and provincial Family allowances Federal 3. ER-sponsored benefits ➢ Life insurance ○ Provided at lower rates for all employees:Also accidental death and dismemberment, critical illness ➢ Health-related insurance ○ For costs not covered by province i.e. Prescription drugs, dental, physiotherapy. ➢ Salary continuation plans: ○ Short-term Disability ■ Abenefit plan crediting a number of days to be used as sick leave. ○ Long term Disability ■ Abenefit plan providing the employee with an income in the case of long-term illness or injury. 4. Cost containment –health care costs ➢ Ignorance and the inability to influence the mix of benefits often lead to pressure from employees for more benefits to meet their needs. 5. Pension plan – defined benefit versus defined contribution ➢ defined benefits (DB) plan ○a benefits plan whose benefits are defined by a formula based on age and length of service, with the employer assuming responsibility for funding ➢ defined contribution (DC) plan ○a benefits plan based on amounts contributed by the employer and the employee, the final pension depending on amounts contributed, investment income, and economic conditions at retirement 6. Flex benefits plan – what is it, advantages & disadvantages ➢ flexible benefit programs ○programs that allow employees to select the mix of benefits and services that will answer their individual needs. also known as cafeteria benefit programs. ➢ advantages ○employees choose packages that best satisfy their unique needs ○flexible benefits help firms meet the changing needs of a changing workforce ○increased involvement of employees and families improves understanding of benefits ○flexible plans make introduction of new benefits less costly ○cost containment - organization sets dollar maximum; employee chooses within the constraint ➢ disadvantage ○employees make bad choices and find themselves not covered for predictable emergencies ○administrative burdens and expenses increase ○Technology increasingly being used to handle enrolment and communication ○adverse selection - employees pick only the benefits they will use; the subsequent high benefit utilization increases its cost Chapter 11 Managing employee relations (pg 391 - 421) 1. Downward vs. upward communication ➢ Downward ○In-House publications ○information booklets ○prerecorded messages ○electronic communication ○social media ○information sharing and open-book management ➢ Upward ○grapevine ○electronic communication ○complaint procedures ○manager-employee meetings ○suggestion systems ○employee attitude/opinion surveys 2. Employee counselling ➢ Discussion of a problem with an employee to resolve the issue and/or help the employee cope ➢ EmployeeAssistance Program (EAP) ○Comprehensive company program that seek to help employees to overcome personal and work-related problems ○Online communications are increasingly being used to supplement EAP structures 3. Fair discipline process: preventive vs. corrective; positive and progressive ➢ Management action taken to encourage compliance with standards ➢ Preventive Discipline ○Action taken prior to any infraction to encourage employees to follow the rules ○HR is responsible for devel
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