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Midterm

MHR Midterm Review Chpts 1-6 v2.docx

15 Pages
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Department
Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 523
Professor
Rasha Nasra

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PART 1 THE STRATEGIC HRM MODEL Chapter 1 Strategic HRM 1. What are the goals of HR Dept.? A specialized group whose main focus is to ensure the most effective use of HR systems by individual managers and the organization overall. This helps the company achieve organizational goals 2. Difference between proactive and reactive HRM? Proactive HRM: a HRM approach wherein decision makers anticipate problems or challenges and take action before it impacts the orgs Reactive HRM: a HRM approach wherein decision makers respond to problems or challenges rather than anticipate them Human resource management: the leadership and management of people within an organization using systems, methods, processes, and procedures that enable employees to optimize their contribution to the organization and its goals Strategic human resource management: integrating HRM strategies and systems to support the organization’s overall mission, strategies, and success while meeting needs of employee and other stakeholders 3. Identify and briefly describe 3 major external challenges (Choosing one each from economic, technological, and demographic) facing HR managers in Canada, and their implications Economic Forces • Econ cycles: economies goes through boom and bust cycles o HR: during recession—layoffs, coming out of recession—how to grow • Global trade: international trade critical for prosperity and growth o HR: how to manage employees, open borders, poaching • Productivity improvement: ration of output (G&S)/inputs (ppl, capital, materials, energy) o HR: outsourcing, ++ P/T employees Technological Forces • Flexible work design: tech influences orgs and affects the way ppl work o HR: telecommunication—how to ensure the employee’s home workstation is safe • Information sharing and knowledge management: tech enables orgs to manage ops innovatively, reducing costs or capitalizing on new opportunities o HR: New HR practices in areas of hiring, compensation, training, performance evaluation, info sharing and employee relations.  Further training of tech skills • Automation: increased predictability and reliability in ops, higher quality of production o HR: negative union attitudes towards mechanization, less opportunities for socialization Demographic Forces • Gender balance in the workplace: Demographic changes: changes in the demographics of the labour force (ex. Education levels, age levels, participation rates) that occur slowly and are usually known in advance o Increase of women in the workforce o HR: work with recruitment to recruit, compensate, and develop policies • Shift Towards Knowledge Workers: Knowledge workers: members of occupations generating, processing, analyzing, or synthesizing ides and information (like scientists and management consultants) • Fastest growing type of workers o HR: find, keep, and continually retrain employees will lead to success o Increased reliance on KW, face challenges of employees hiding or withholding knowledge • Aging Population: Old age crisis: refers to the social (health care) and organizational (new workplace ergonomics) challenges caused by aging of population • Average age of retirement on the rise o HR: pressures for expanded retirement benefits, variable work schedules, coordination of government benefits with company benefits and retraining programs • Generational Shift: Generation X (Nexus generation born between 1966-1980) o Place premium on work-life balance, active in decision making, more loyal to profession and competency rather than employer • Generation Y o Seek continuous learning, ongoing feedback, technology, security, respect and work-life balance o Easily bored, hold unrealistic expectations of self and others = frustration o HR: needs to develop clear expectations and policies, 4. Outline 3 major strategies pursued by Canadian businesses. What implications do they have for the human resource function within the firms? Give examples. Cost leadership strategy: strategy to gain competitive advantage through lower costs of operations and lower prices for products Differentiation strategy: strategy to gain competitive advantage by creating a distinct product or offering a unique service Focus strategy: strategy to gain a competitive advantage by focusing on the needs of a specific segment of the total market 5. Authority Staff: authority to advise, but not to direct others Line: authority to make decisions about production, performance, and people Functional: authority that allows staff expert to make decisions and take actions normally reserved for line managers 6. Model of strategic HRM o Step 1: Environmental scan (DELTC— demographic, economic, legal, technological, and cultural) o Step 2: Organizational mission and goals analysis: look at mission and goals Mission statement: statement outlining the purpose, LT objectives, and activities the organization will pursue and the course for the future. o Step 3: Analysis of organizational character and culture: formed only after looking at them Organizational character: the product of all of an organization’s features—people, objectives, technology, size, age, unions, policies, successes, and failures Organizational culture: the core beliefs and assumptions that are widely shared by all organizational members o Step 4: Analysis of organizational strategies o Step 5: Choice and implementation of human resource strategies PAPMM Planning, Attracting, Placing, developing and evaluating, Motivating and rewarding, and maintaining high performance o Step 6: Review and audit PART 2 PLANNING HR Chapter 2 Job Analysis and Design 1. Why conduct job analysis? What methods of collecting information will you recommend and why? Job analysis: systematic study of a job to discover its specifications, skills requirements, and so on for wage-setting, recruitment, training, or job-simplification purposes • Jobs are at the core of productivity, it they aren’t designed well and done right the org suffers • HRIS • STATS CAN • Ask employees Job: group of related activities and duties Position: collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by an individual 1 sup, 3 clerks, 12 service personnel = 16 positions and 3 jobs 2. Job Analysis Process Phase 1: Preparation for job analysis • Step 1: familiarize with the org and jobs • Step 2: determine the use of job analysis • Step 3: identify jobs to be analyze Phase 2: Collection of job analysis information • Step 4: determine sources of job data • Step 5: data collection instrument design o Status and identification: whether job is exempt from OT laws o Duties and responsibilities: JA explains purpose of job, what job accomplishes and how it’s performed o FJA: classifies tasks using 3 functional scales about data, ppl, and things o F-JAS: JA based on 52 cognitive, psychomotor, physical and sensory ability (mainly used in US) o PAQ (position analysis questionnaire): apply to all types of jobs; more fine-tunes that F- JAS. Using 5 pt scale, aims to determine the degree to which 194 different task elements are involved in performing a particular job o CIM: identifying and describing specific events or incidents an employee performed really well and when they perform really badly, used to create behaviourally focused descriptions of work & related PFS • Step 6: choice method for data collection Interviews: approach to collecting job and performance related info by face-to-face meeting with jobholder, typically using a standardized questionnaire Focus group: face-to-face meeting with 5-7 knowledgeable experts on a job and a facilitator to collect job and performance related info Mailed questionnaires: standardized questionnaires used to survey employees to collection info about jobs, working conditions, and other performance related info Pulse surveys: are used to assess periodically the opinion of an orgs employee Employee log: approach to collecting job and performance-related info by asking jobholder to summarize tasks, activities, and challenges in a diary format Observation: collecting J and P info by direct observation of jobholders by a specialist Combination: concurrent use of 2 or more JA techniques Phase 3: Use of job analysis • Job description • Job specification • Job performance standards • Job redesign • Designing HRIS • Changing HR systems (compensation) • Organization change (redesigning workflow in plant) 3. Define job descriptions and job specifications, illustrating how they are related yet different. Job description: a recognized list of functions, tasks, accountabilities, working conditions, and competencies for a particular occupation or job Job specification: a written statement that explains what a job demands of jobholders and the human skills and factors required Job description focuses on job tasks and duties, whereas job specification indicates the KSAOs necessary to do the job. Key parts of JD: job identity, job summary, job duties, and working conditions, JS: specific tools, actions, experiences, education and training. 4. Competency Models Competency: knowledge, skills, ability or behaviour associated w/ successful JP Competency model/framework: a list of competencies required in a particular job Competency matrix: a list of the level of each competency required for each of a number of jobs 5. What factors need to be considered when redesigning jobs? Of these which is most important? Job Design: identification of job duties, characteristics, competencies, and sequences taking into consideration technology, workforce, organization character, and environment Org considerations: efficiency, workflow: sequence of and balance b/w jobs in orgs needed to produce firms G&S Ergonomic considerations: study of relationships b/w physical attributes of workers and their work environment to reduce physical and mental strain and increase productivity and quality of work life Employee consideration: Autonomy: independence—having control over one’s work and one’s response to the work environment Variety: worker has opportunities to use different skills and abilities or perform different activities Task identity: feeling of responsibility or pride from doing an entire piece of work not just part, Feedback: info that helps evaluate success of failure of an action or system, Task significance: knowing that the work you do is important to others, Job rotation: moving employees from one job to another allowing variety and new skills to be learned, Job enlargement: adding more tasks to a job to increase the job cycle and draw on wider range of employee skills, Job enrichment: adding more responsibility and autonomy to a job, giving them more power to plan and evaluate JP Environmental consideration: the influence of the external environment on job design includes employee ability, availability, and social expectations • Workforce availability • Social expectation: larger society’s expectations from employees regarding job challenge, working conditions, and quality of work life • Work practice: the set ways in performing work in an org Chapter 3 HR Planning 1. What is the key steps in HRP in organizations? HRP: a process used to determine future human resource requirements by anticipating future business demands, analyzing the impacts of these demands on the organization, and making decisions on how to effectively acquire and utilize firms’ human resource. • Step 1: Forecast demand for resources o How many HR will we need, when, and where • Step 2: Assess internal and external supply of resources o What resources do we have available, and what skills and competencies of these resources possess? o Internal: skills inventory, replacement charts o External: LMA, community attitudes, demographic trends • Step 3: Develop HR objectives o Identifies what planners expect to accomplish, they carry out an analysis to determine diff between supply and demand and write objectives that will determine choice of programs • Step 4: Design and implement HRM programs o Planners decide what type of HR programs will be developed to achieve objectives, programs attempt to balance supply and demand • Step 5: Establish program evaluation o Evaluate effectiveness using quantitative or qualitative measurement. Answers is there a tangible link b/w investments in HR programs and org sustainability and to what degree 2. What are staffing tables and replacement charts? Of what use are they to a HR manager? Staffing table: a list of anticipated employment openings for each type of job • Can be specific numbers or approximate range of needs, allow HR to match short run demand and supply • Help operating dept. run more smoothly • HR specialist become more proactive and systematic Replacement chart: visual representations of who will replace whom when a job opening occurs • Info comes from HR audit • HR and management decision makers find these provide quick reference • Contains little inform need to look at replacement summaries which lists strengths and weaknesses of potential candidates 3. Discuss any 3 techniques for estimating the demand for HR, provide relevant examples Nominal group technique: focused group discussion where members meet face to face, write down their ideas and share them. All new thoughts on a topic are recorded and ranked for importance Delphi technique: soliciting of predictions about specified future events from a panel of experts, using repeated surveys until convergence in opinions occurs Markov analysis: forecast of a firm’s future HR supplies, using transitional probability matrices reflecting on historical or expected movements of employees across jobs Transitional matrices: describes the probabilities of how quickly a job position turns over and what an incumbent employee may do over a forecast period of time, such as stay in the current position, move to another within the firm or accept a job from another org Labour market analysis: the study of a firm’s labour market to evaluate the present or future availability of different types of workers COPS (Canadian occupational projection system): provides up to 10-year projection of Canadian economy and HR needs 4. What are some popular approaches to match the supply and demand of HR, briefly discuss 2 approaches each for situations when demand exceeds and is less than supply of HR, highlighting advantages and disadvantages Oversupply: Headcount reduction • • Layoffs • Outplacement • Leave without pay • Incentives for voluntary separation • Termination Attrition: loss of employees due to voluntary departures from the firm through resignation, retirement or death • Hiring freeze • Early and phased retirement offers Alternative work arrangements • Job sharing • Using PT employees • Internal transfers Shortage • • Hire FT employees, PT employees • Contract out the work, outsourcing, crowdsourcing • OT, flexible hours, schedules, or location • Float and transfers 5. • Flexible retirement 6. Alternate work arrangements are useful approaches for both the employer and employee, discuss Flex hours: variable start and stop times Flex schedules: any type of variation in traditional work schedules Compressed workweeks: reduction in the number of days per week in which FT work is performed, but not in the number of weekly hours Telecommuting: FT or PT labour performed at the employee’s home or on the move w/ the assistance of tech Virtual organization: an operational domain of any org whose workforce includes a significant portion of remote workers Flexible retirement:
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