Study Guides (238,471)
Canada (115,151)
MHR 523 (215)

MHR 523 - Final Exam notes.docx

15 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 523
Margaret Yap

MHR 523 – Final Exam Notes - Human Resources and the text book Human Resource Management is the leadership and management of people within an organization using systems, methods, processes and procedures that enable employees to optimize their contribution to the organization and its goals. CHAPTER 7 – PLACING, DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING HUMAN RESOURCES In order to ensure that a company utilizes its talent resources effectively it needs to manage a new employee’s gap between expectations and abilities, and the job’s characteristics starting with an effective onboarding and orientation. Onboarding – the process of integrating and acculturating new employees into the organization and providing them with the tools, resources and knowledge to become successful and productive. Onboarding outcomes: 1. Greater retention; 2. Faster time to productivity; 3. Increased motivation; and 4. Increased engagement Orientation – is an important onboarding activity Purposes of orientation: 1. Reduce employee turnover; 2. Reduce errors and save time (start-up costs, new employees typically less efficient) 3. Develop clear job and organizational expectations thus improving job performance 4. Attain acceptable job performance levels faster 5. Increase organizational stability 6. Reduce employee anxiety 7. Reduce grievances 8. Reduce instances of corrective discipline measures Principles of Onboarding • Align to the mission and value • Connect to culture, strategic goals and priorities • Integrate across process owners • Apply to all employees st Onboarding starts before the first day of employment and carries into the entire 1 year. Topics of orientation: organizational issues (history, org chart, tour,etc.) , hr related issues (pay structure, benefits, sick and vacation days), role expectation and performance issues (job tasks, location, safety issues) Socialization: the process by which people adapt to an organization through learning to understand and accept the values, norms, and beliefs held by others in the organization. Involves turning outsiders into insiders. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Orientation Programs: 1. Reactions from new employees 2. Effects of socialization on job attitudes and roles 3. Degree to which the program is economical 4. Continued use of orientation resources TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT – A STRATEGIC TOOL One type of organization: Learning organization – it has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt and change. Human Resource development (HRD) – a part of HR management that integrates the use of training and employee and career development efforts to improve individual, group and organizational effectiveness. Differentiating Training & Training Development Dev’t Time frame Short term - immediate Mid to long term Focus of activity Current job/skill development Future roles and responsibilities/ Competencies development – Multiple learning experiences Range Individual Group/organization Goal Enhance skills in current job Optimize potential – future development/growth opportunities Examples of methods used Programmed instruction, role Coaching, counselling, mentoring, plays, job shadowing, conferences, case study, simulation, self-study simulations, job rotations Evaluation of Training & Development – reaction, knowledge, behaviour, organizational results (criteria) Purpose of Training – Training is an important part of a company’s long-term strategy because human capital is a company’s most important/valuable asset. The Training System – benefits – skill development, self-development, stronger self-confidence, more effective handling of stress and conflicts and a sense of growth. Training system: 1. Needs assessment – a diagnosis that presents problems and future challenges that can be addressed 2. Training objectives – desired behaviour, conditions under which training will occur, acceptable performance criteria (also need to develop evaluation criteria at this stage) 3. Program content 4. Learning principles – learning curve – participation, repetition, relevance, transference, feedback 5. Actual program 6. Skills, knowledge and ability of workers 7. Evaluation Employee benefits: skill improvement, self-development, self-confidence, sense of growth Employer/Organizational benefits: improved profitablit, improved morale, lower costs, better corporate image Training techniques should be evaluated with the following in mind: 1. Cost effectiveness 2. Desired program content 3. Appropriateness of the facilities 4. Trainee preferences and capabilities 5. Trainer preferences and capabilities 6. Learning principles Training techniques 1. On-the-job training (OJT) 2. Job rotation 3. Apprenticeships and coaching 4. Off-the-job Training a. Lectures and video presentations b. Vestibule training and simulations c. Role playing d. Case study e. Self-study and programmed learning f. Laboratory training 5. Web-based Learning/E-Learning a. Computer-based training using the internet/intranet b. Web-based delivery standards i. Web/computer training ii. Web/electronic performance support (online tools and databases) iii. Web/virtual synchronous (online meetings) iv. Web/virtual asynchronous (online classrooms) c. Popular web-based tools i. Blogs ii. RSS (Rich site summary –eg. online publications) iii. Podcasts iv. Wikis v. Social networking websites Benefits and challenges of online learning – 1. Is available to a new employee more often Offers new employee learning alternatives Less expensive once program has been developed 2. Time consuming to develop Costly to develop – must be kept current Learning Principles: Training objectives = Effective Learning when the following learning principles are applied: 1. Participation 2. Repetition 3. Relevance 4. Transference (look up definition) 5. Feedback Employee development is the process of providing employees with opportunities to grow within an organization: Competencies – skills, knowledge and behaviors that distinguish high performance in a broad role, function, or level of the organization. Steps to create Employee Development Plans (EDP) 1. Assess employee needs 2. Link competencies and skills to business goals 3. Identify learning and development activities 4. Determine resources 5. Identify barriers Development Strategies – 1. Cognitive (altering thoughts and ideas) 2. Behavioiur (change behaviour (hardest)) 3. Environmental - (strategies to change attitudes and values) The environmental approach seems to be most promising. Training evaluation criteria: a. Reaction b. Knowledge/skill c. Behaviour d. Organizational results Evaluation Methodology - observation/test - training - repeat observation/test Cost-Benefit analysis – analysis undertaken to assess the cost-effectiveness of a project or program. Costs – evaluator’s fee, travel and accommodation, overhead Benefit – increased productivity, reduced labour hours, reduced error rate, and reduced accident rates Career Planning and Development – the process through which someone becomes more aware of their interests and needs, motivations, etc. Factors affecting individual career choice – generational differences, values, abilities, attitude, fit The RIASEC Model – John Holland’s Occupational Types – Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, social, enterprising and conventional Strategic HR Development – identification of essential job skills and the management of employee’s learning in relation to corporate and business strategies. Benchmarking – comparing to a standard Employee Development – process of enhancing an employees future value through careful career planning HR Dept and career planning – - Encourages management commitment - Devises communication plans through HR tools - Align HR process to facilitate career planning - Uses technology to support career planning efforts - Develops and promotable employees - Lowers turnover - Taps employee potential - Furthers growth - Reduces hoarding - Satisfies employee needs - Assists organizations meet legal requirements Chapter 8 – Performance Management Performance management is the use of performance data to effect organizational culture, systems, and processes, set goals, allocate resources, affect policies and programs and share results. Spearheaded by HR. Use of Performance Appraisal info Characteristics of effective performance management: • Performance objectives • Performance goals • Performance measurement • Output measures • Outcome measures PM System Goals • Transform organizational objectives into clearly understood and measurable outcomes • Provide instruments for measuring, managing, and improving the success of the organization • Include measures of quality, cost, speed to provide an in-depth, predictive system • Shift to an ongoing, forward-looking strategic partnership between management and employees Performance appraisals Balanced scorecard – combines the performance measures of the total organization – integrates customers satisfaction, internal processes, learning and innovation Use of Performance Appraisals • Feedback and performance improvement • Administrative decisions • Employee development and career planning • Criteria for test validation • Training program objectives • Job re-design Key elements – the HR department usually develops performance appraisals for employees in all departments • Centralization is meant to ensure uniformity in order to provide for useful results • Employee’s immediate supervisor usually performs the actual evaluation Appraisal systems – elements – characteristics Job-related –evaluates behaviours that constitute job success Practical – understood by evaluators and employees Have performance standards – benchmarks for measuring performance Have performance measures – ratings used to evaluate performance Performance measures – direct, indirect, objective, subjective Characteristics of effectiveness (performance appraisal systems) - 1. validity, 2. reliability, 3. input into development, 4. acceptable standards,5. acceptable goals, 6. control of standards, 7. Frequency of feedback, 8.Rater training, 9. Rate training, 10. Input into interview process, 11. Appraisal consequences, 12. Different sources (raters). Types of Performance appraisals – PAST PERFORMANCE METHODS - rating scale (oldes), BARS (description of effective/ineffective performance – placed alongside a scale) Tests & Observations, 360- degree, ranking method, forced distributions (employees sorted into categories – usually bad choice) Types of Performance appraisals – FUTURE PERFORMANCE METHODS – Management-by- Objectives Approach (employee and supervisor jointly establish performance goals for the future – goals should be mutually agreed upon and objectively measurable (SMART)), Assessment Centre Technique (relies on multiple types of evaluation and multiple raters – usually used for mid-level managers Others – Web-based performance appraisal, competencies (focus on skills), talent management (identify and develop specific individuals who are seen as having high potential) Training raters – make sure they have knowledge of the system and its purpose, focus on cognitive aspects of the rating process Focus on reducing/eliminating rating errors: - Recency effect – occurs when ratings are strongly affected by the employee’s most recent actions: Contrast errors – occurs when rater compare employees to each other rather than to a standard Employees get a chance to : tell and sell ; tell and listen; problem solve – Interviewer should be positive, focus on positive aspects of employees performance, tell employee the session is to improve; provide feedback in a private location; review performance in a formal way at least once a year; make criticisms specific not general and vague; stay calm; do not make it personal; end by reviewing plans to improve and reinforce positive performance. Performance Appraisals are a legal document; raters must use only performance criteria that are relevant to the job; a reasonable time must be given for improvement; well documented can be used in court. Chapter 9 Compensation Total rewards: An integrated package of all rewards (monetary and non-monetary, extrinsic and intrinsic) gained by employee’s arising from their employment. Comp, benefits, social interaction, security, status/recognition, workload, autonomy, advancement, work conditions, development opportunities, work variety Compensation – cash and non-cash rewards employee receives in exchange for their work. Objectives of Effective Compensation: 1. Acquire personnel 2. Retain employees 3. Ensure equity 4. Reward behavior 5. Control costs 6. Legal compliance 7. Administrative efficiency Phases of Compensation Management Phase I – Identify and study jobs (Job analysis) Phase II – Internal Equity (Job evaluation) Phase III – External Equity (Wage and Salary surveys) Phase IV – Matching internal and external worth (pricing jobs) Pay ranges – a series of steps or levels within a pay grade. Broadbanding – reducing the number of salary grades and ranges into just a few wide levels or “bands”, each of which then contains a relative wide range of jobs and salary levels. Pay Equity – equal pay for work of equal value – goal to eliminate the wage gap between men and women (Exists for historical reasons – felt a man needed more because he was the bread winner; career gap, women tend to work in lower paying occupations – 5% - 10% of pay gap unexplained (Cdn women earn 80% of what men earn) Pay for Performance P4P - Incentive pay or variable pay - Plans that link pay to productivity or profits - Individual or group; short-term or long-term - Accurate performance appraisal or measurable outcomes is a precondition for effective p4p plans Individual incentives - Merit pay - Piecework - Production bonuses - Executive incentives - Commission Team based incentives- team bonuses, profit sharing, stock ownership (ESOP), cost reduction plans (eg. Scanlon plan) Incentive Systems – benefits and problems Benefits Problems - Performance is reinforced regularly - Administration can be complex - Reinforcement is quick and frequent - May result in inequities - Desired behaviours are likely to continue - Employees may not achieve standards due to Uncontrollable forces - Wages paid in proportion with performance - Union resistance • Employees may focus on only one aspect Compensation Challenges: 1. Prevailing wage rates; 2. Union power; 3. Productivity; 4. Wage & salary policies; 5.Government constraints Pay secrecy Advantages 1. Most employees prefer to have their pay kept secret; 2. Gives managers greater freedom; and 3. covers up inequities Disadvantages 1. May generate distrust in the pay system; 2. Employees may perceive there is no relationship between pay and performance New approaches – skill or knowledge based pay, variable pay, broadbanding, tailor made perks, international pay 3 factors that lead to better performance – autono
More Less

Related notes for MHR 523

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.