Management Human Resources Notes
Chapters For Mid Term: 1, 12, 2, 3, 4, and 5
Chapters After Mid Term: 6, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 14
Chapter 1: Strategic Importance of Human Resource Management
Five Major Challenges facing Canadian Business
1. Economic Challenges: Economic factors facing Canadian business today, including
global trade challenges to increase one’s own competitiveness and productivity levels.
There are 3 critical economic challenges:
1. Surviving a recessionary cycle.
2. Facing the global trade challenge.
3. Meeting the challenge of productivity improvement.
Productivity: The ratio of a firms outputs (good an services) divided by Inputs (people,
capital, materials, energy)
Outsourcing: Contracting tasks to outside agencies or persons. Example: Here's a simple
explanation: You hire my company to build your hotel. In turn, my company hires a
different company to come in and install the plumbing, another to install the
lighting, and yet another to install the carpeting
Outplacement: Assigning employees to find jobs with other employers. Example: the
process of finding new jobs for people in your company who have been forced to
leave because their job no longer exists.
2. Technological Challenges: A major technological change allowing the processing of vast
amounts of data at great speeds, enabling organizations to improve efficiency,
responsiveness, and flexibility in operations.
Telecommuting: Paid labor performed at the employee’s home, full time or part time, with
assistance of PC’s, modems, faxes machines, etc.
Automation: The automatically controlled operation of a process, system, or equipment by
mechanical or electronic devices. Example: a system that uses machines to do work
instead of people, or the process of changing to such a system.
3. Demographic Challenges: More women employees, more knowledgeable
workers, educational attainment, older workers, more part times.
Demographical changes: Changes in the demographics of the labor force such as
education levels, age levels, and participation rates. Those occur slowly and are
usually known in advance.
Data Workers: Members of occupations (e.g., most clerical occupations) that use,
transmit, or manipulate symbolic information created by knowledge workers. Knowledge Workers: Members of occupations generating, processing, analyzing,
or synthesizing ideas and information (like scientists and management
Educational attainment: The highest educational level attained by an individual
worker, employee group, or population.
Parttime workers: persons working fewer that required hours for categorization as full
time workers and who are ineligible for many supplementary benefits offered by
Contract (or Contingent) workers: Freelancers (selfemployees, temporary, or leased
employees) who are not part of regular workforce and are paid on a project completion
4. Cultural Challenges: Challenges facing a firms decision makers because of cultural
differences among employees or changes in core cultural or social values occurring at the
larger societal level.
Attitudes toward work: Variety of work related assumptions and values including the role
of work in a person’s life and the role of women and diverse groups in organizations.
Cultural Mosaic: Canadian ideal of encouraging each ethnic, racial, and social group to
maintain its own cultural heritage, forming a national mosaic of different cultures.
Attitude toward government: Basic assumptions about the role of government in business
and society, including the desirability of a welfare state with a key interventionist role of
5. Legal Challenges: Employment equity, Human rights laws, Charter of Rights, Minimum
wages acts, Safety Related Legislation.
Three Objectives of Human Resources Management:
1. Organizational Objective: An organization’s short and long term goals that HR
department aims to achieve. Should help organization to identify the right quality, type, and
number of employees.
2. Societal Objectives: Societal priorities (e.g., lower pollution levels) that HR department
targets while setting own objectives and strategies.
3. Employee Objectives: Goals set by HR department to assist employees to achieve
personal goals that will enhance their contribution to the organization.
Strategic Human Resource Management: Strategic Human Resource Management: Integrating human resource management
strategies and systems to achieve overall mission, strategies, and success of the firm while
meeting needs of employees and other stakeholders.
Steps in Strategic Human Resources Management
Step 1: Environmental Analysis.
Step 2: Organizational Mission and Goals Analysis.
Mission Statement: Statement outlining the purpose, longterm objectives, and activities
the organization will pursue and the course for the future.
Step 3: Analysis of Organizational Strengths and Culture.
Organization Character: The product of all of an organization features its people,
objectives, technology, size, age, unions, policies, successes, and failures.
Step 4: Analysis of Organizational Strategies: There is three main Strategies.
1. Cost Leadership Strategy: Strategy to gain competitive advantage through
lower costs of operations and lower prices of products.
2. Differentiation Strategy: strategy to gain competitive advantage by creating
a distinct product or offering a unique service.
3. Focus Strategy: Strategy to gain competitive advantage by focusing on the
needs of a specific segment of the total market.
Step 5: Choice and Implementation of Human Resource Strategies.
IN ORDER TO FORMULATE STRATEGIES HR MUST FOLLOW 5 MAJOR GROUPS OF
1. Planning Human Resource: A job analysis enables the human resource
manager to collect important information about varies jobs, including required job
behaviors and performance standards.
2. Attracting Human Resources: In recruiting and selecting workers, a human
resource manager should meet all legal requirements.
3. Placing, Developing, and Evaluating Human Resources: Once hired, new
employees need to be oriented to the organizations policies and procedures and
placed in their new job positions.
4. Motivating Employees: When employees perform acceptably they must
5. Maintaining High Performance: Human resource must insure that works at
his or her maximum level possible.
Commitment Strategy: An organizational strategy that attempts to forge a commonality of
interest between the organization (often symbolized by the manager) and its employees. Compliance Strategy: focus is on achieving labor efficiencies through control over labor
costs, use of a temporary or contingent workforce, maximum control over processes and
using it as a key competitive weapon. Create rule and laws in own benefits.
Paternalistic Strategy: some minimal degree of training and competency building through
training, job rotation, etc. is done with objective of achieving flexibility of staffing and task
assignment and maintaining workforce stability.
Collaborative Strategy: relies on highly skilled contract labor to supply the needed
specialized staff by hiring them on an “as needed” basics or retaining them on an “on call”
Step 6: Review and Evolution of Human Resource strategies.
Reactive: management approaches wherein decision makers respond to problems rather
Proactive: management approach wherein decision makers anticipate problems and likely
challenges and take action before a problem occurs.
Staff Authority: Authority to advise, but not direct, others.
Line Authority: Authority to make decisions about production, performance, and people.
Functional Authority: Authority that allows staff experts to make decisions and take actions
normally reserved for line manager.
Organizational Culture: The core beliefs and assumptions that are widely shared by all
Certified Human resources professionals (CHRP): Human Resource practitioner, formally,
accredited to practice, which reflects a threshold professional level of practice.
Chapter 12: Diversity Management
Old boys Network: Set of informal relationships among male managers providing
increased career advancement opportunities for men and reinforcing a male culture.
Glass Ceiling: Invisible, but real obstructions to career advancement of women and people
of visible minorities, resulting in frustration, career dissatisfaction, and increased turnover.
Workforce Diversity: Includes important human characteristics that influence employees
values, their perceptions of self and others, behaviors, and interpretations of events.
Core Dimensions of Diversity: Age, ethnicity and culture, gender, race, religion, sexual
orientation, and capabilities.
Second Dimensions of Diversity: education, status, language, and income levels.
Managing Diversity: ability to manage individual employees with different cultural values
and lead teams made up of diverse employees. Stereotyping: the process of using a few observable characteristics to assign someone to a
preconceived social category.
Paradigm Shift: Fundamental change in paradigm, e.g., shifts from paper filing systems to
electronic information storage and retrieval.
Steps In Diversity Management:
Step 1: Identify Ideal Future State: Once a firm has an accurate picture of its workforce
composition (and likely future needs), it is critical to assess the values and needs of the
work force. Survey, focus groups, and interviews with individual’s employees and work
groups are employed to identify present and ideal future states at work.
Step 2: Analyze Present Systems and Procedures: See how current thing are working such
as policies, systems, rules, etc. See if thing like rules and systems are fair with in different
Cultural Norms: Values and Norms that determine behaviors of individuals and groups in
Step 3: Change Systems, Procedures, and Practices: Five factors are particularly critical to
Senior management commitment
Education and retraining
Wide communication of changes
Step 4: Evaluation of Results and Follow up
Diversity Committee: A committee entrusted to oversee diversity efforts, implement
processes and serve as a communication link.
Diversity Audits: Audits to uncover underlying dimensions, causes, interdependencies, and
progress todate on diversity management matters.
Current Industry Practices:
Diversity Training Program: training programs aimed to at importing new skills to
motivating and manage a diverse workforce.
Awareness training: Training employees to develop their understanding of the need to
manage and value diversity.
Skill building Diversity: Training employees in interpersonal skills o correctly respond to
cultural differences at workplace. Mentoring Programs: Programs encouraging members of disadvantaged groups (e.g.
women) to work with a senior manager who acts like a friend and guide in achieving career
Alternative work arrangement: Nontraditional work arrangements (e.g. flextime,
telecommuting) that provide more flexibility to employees, while meeting organizational
Apprenticeships: a form of onethejob training in which young people learn a trade from
an experienced person.
Support Groups: Groups of employees who provide emotional support to a new employee
who shares a common attribute with the group (e.g. racial or ethnic membership).
Communication Standards: Formal protocols for internal communications within an
organization to eliminate gender, racial, age, or other biases in communications.
Diversity Challenges for Global Firms:
Expatriates: Is homecountry nationals send to foreign locations on temporary or extended
Host Country Nationals: Local Citizens employed by a foreign owned firm (in the host
Third Country Nationals: Natives of a country other than the home or host country of the
firm that has hired them.
Transnational Teams: Teams composed of members of multiple nationalities working on
projects that span several countries.
RingiSei: A type of decision making by consensus often used by the Japanese; literally,
“bottomup decision making”
Culture Shock: Cultural disorientation causing stress and the inability to respond
Global Mindset: the capacity to scan the world with a broad view, to value diversity, and to
Home country Evaluations: Performance appraisals carried out by an expatriate’s home
Host country Evaluations: Performance appraisals carried out by an expatriate’s local (or
host) country. Relocation assistance: Financial or other assistance to help expatriates move to the new
Chapter 2: Job Analysis and Design
Job Analysis: Systematic study of a job to discover its specifications, skill requirements,
and so on, for wage setting, recruitment, training, or job simplification purpose.
Job: Group of related activities and duties
Position: Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by an individual.
Steps in Job Analysis Process
Phase 1: Preparation for Job Analysis
Step 1: Familiarization with the Organization and its Jobs
Step 2: Determine uses of job information
Step 3: Identify Jobs to be Analyzed
Phase 2: Collection of Job Analysis Information
Step 4: Determine Sources of job data
Step 5: Data collection instrument design
Job Analysis Schedule: Checklist that seek to collect information about jobs in a uniform
Step 6: Choice of method for data collection
Interview: Approach to collecting joband performance related information by a faceto