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Human Resources
MHR 623
Genevieve Farrell

MHR623 Final Exam Notes CHAPTER 4 Competencies: groups of related behaviour that are needed for successful job performance; a combination of motive, trait, skill, aspect of one’s self-image or social role, or a body of relevant knowledge Competencies contain 3 elements:  KSAO’s that underlie effective and successful job performance in an organization  KSAO’s must be observable or measurable;  KSAO’s must distinguish between superior and other performance Competency Model: a collection of competencies that are relevant to performance in a particular job, job family, or functional area  usually developed as a three-tiered competency framework based on an organization’s strategy and vision Competency Categories:  Core/ Org. competencies: characteristics that every member of an organization, regardless of position, function, job, or level of responsibility within the organization, is expected to possess; (i.e., leadership, motivation, trust, problem solving, interpersonal skills and communication)  Functional/ Group competencies: characteristics shared by different positions within an organization. Only those members of an organization in these positions are expected to possess these competencies; i.e. group of related or similar jobs  Job-specific/ Task competencies: characteristics that apply only to specific positions within the organization. Only those people in the position are expected to possess these competencies Competency Dictionaries:  Competency dictionary: a listing of all of the competencies required by an organization to achieve its mandate, along with the proficiency level required to perform successfully in different functional groups or positions.  Proficiency level: the level at which competency must be performed to ensure success in a given functional group or position (i.e. basic, proficient, very proficient, and mastery)  Proficiency scale: a series of behavioural indicators expected at specific levels of a competency, independent of any position; real, observable differences Competency profile: a set of proficiency ratings related to a function, job, or employee  Core: communication, thinking skills, using technology, changing and learning, client focus, initiative, positive attitude, working with others, knowing your business  Group: applying principles & procedures, info gathering, verification & accuracy, awareness  Task: knowledge of specific programs and services related to position Steps in Developing a Competency-Based Management Framework 1. Obtain executive-level support including sufficient human and financial resources 2. Review the organization’s mission, vision, and values statements 3. Adopt a competency definition that meets the needs of the organization 4. Determine the HR functions for which competencies will be used 5. Determine the architecture of the competency model 6. Develop the competency dictionary 7. Define the profiling methodology 8. Identify reliable and valid assessment strategies to determine employee competency profiles 9. Document all steps in the development and implementation of the system 10. Evaluate the system on an ongoing basis to ensure that the competency profiles continue to predict successful job performance *Great Eight Competencies*  Leading and decidinginitiates action, gives direction and takes responsibility, takes control  Supporting and cooperating puts people first, working effectively with individuals and teams, shows respect and positive regard in social situations  Interacting and presenting  communicates and networks effectively, successfully persuades and influences others, relates to others in a confident and relaxed manner  Analyzing and interpreting shows evidence of clear analytical thinking, gets to the heart of complex problems and issues, applies own expertise effectively, quickly takes on new technology, communicates well in writing  Creating and conceptualizing works well in situations requiring openness to new ideas and experiences, seeks out learning opportunities, handles situations and problems with innovation and creativity, thinks broadly and strategically, supports and drives organizational change  Organizing and executing  plans ahead and works in a systematic and organized way, follows directions and procedures, focuses on customer satisfaction and delivers a quality service to standards  Adapting and coping responds well to change, manages pressure and setbacks  Enterprising and performing  focuses on results and achieving personal work objectives, works best when work is related closely to results and the impact of personal effort is obvious, shows an understanding of business, seeks opportunities for self-development and career advancement CHAPTER 5: Job Performance: behaviour that is relevant to accomplishing the goals of an organization. Criteria: measures of job performance that attempt to capture individual differences among employees with respect to job-related behaviours.  Task performance: duties related to the direct production of goods and services and to the direct contribution to the efficient functioning of the organization that form part of a job. These duties are part of the worker’s formal job description.  Contextual performance: the activities or behaviours that are not part of a worker’s formal job description but that remain important for organizational effectiveness. It is closely related to organizational citizenship behaviour. The contextual performance dimensions appear to be extensions of the eight job performance dimensions. Contextual performance may related to broader organization roles taken on by an employee without references to specific job-related tasks. Contextual performance activities may represent important criteria for jobs in many organizations because of their relationship to organizational effectiveness.  Counterproductive work behaviours: voluntary behaviours that violate significant organizational norms and in so doing threaten the well-being of an organization, its members, or both; opposite of organizational citizenship Job performance domain: the set of job performance dimensions (i.e., behaviours) that are relevant to the goals of the organization, or the unit, in which a person works (includes all 3 job performances) Performance dimensions: sets of related behaviours that are derived from an organization’s goals and linked to successful job performance Multidimensional Model of Job Performance: Task Behaviours 1. Job-specific task proficiency: perform technical tasks that make up the content of the job. 2. Non-job-specific task proficiency: perform tasks or behaviours that are not specific to one job. 3. Supervision/leadership: influencing the performance of subordinates 4. Management/administration: behaviours in management that is distinct from supervision. Contextual Behaviours: 5. Written and oral communication task proficiency: write or speak, independent of correctness 6. Demonstrating effort: committed to performing all job tasks, to working at a high level of intensity, and to working under adverse conditions. 7. Facilitating peer and team performance: the degree to which an individual supports coworkers, helps them with job problems, and keeps them working as a team to achieve their goals. Counterproductive Work Behaviours: 8. Maintaining personal discipline: the extent to which negative behaviours are avoided. 5 Categories of Contextual Performance: 1. Persisting with enthusiasm and extra effort 2. Volunteering to carry out task activities 3. Helping and cooperating with others 4. Following organizational rules and procedures 5. Endorsing, supporting and defending organizational objectives Types of Counterproductive Work Behaviours Withdrawal Behaviours  Tardiness  Tardiness and Absence  Absence  Presenteeism  Presenteeism  Voluntary Turnover  most extreme  Workplace Deviance  Workplace Property Deviance (Employee Theft)  Production Deviance  Interpersonal Workplace Deviance (Workplace  Psychological Withdrawal Aggression and Violence, Bullying at Work and  Employee Theft Psychological Harassment)  Workplace Aggression and Violence  Bullying *All 3 types of job performance are based on individual differences: declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and skill, and motivation Effective Performance Measure:  Relevancy: requires that a criterion must not only be relevant, but also not be deficient or contaminated Criterion deficiency: job performance behaviours/competencies that are not measured by the criterion Criterion contamination: the degree to which the criterion measure is influenced by, or measures, behaviours or competencies that are not part of job performance  Criterion relevance: the degree to which a criterion captures behaviours or competencies that constitute job performance  Reliability: involves agreement between different evaluations, at different periods of time, and with different measures; degree to which observed scores are free from random measurement errors (i.e., the dependability or stability of the measure).  Practicality: the degree to which a criterion measure is available, plausible, and acceptable to organizational decision makers Identifying Criterion Measures: criteria are dynamic, multidimensional, situation-specific, and serve multiple functions  Ultimate criterion: the concept that a single criterion measure reflects overall job success  Global vs. Multiple: JA procedures are inductive and require independent, multiple criteria to measure performance and the best strategy is to measure important, diverse dimensions  Composite vs. Multiple: composite score should reflect priority of organizational goals; composite is inappropriate because it averages performance across all dimensions Consistency of Job Performance:  Training vs. Job Proficiency: training criteria are acceptable performance measures for estimating maximum performance, but will overestimate typical performance  Typical vs. Maximum: maximum is when the worker is aware they are being observed; predictors based on cognitive ability will have a greater degree of validity when used with maximal criteria, and personality measures in predicting typical criteria; motivation plays a larger role in typical performance and differs amongst individuals  Dynamic vs. Stable: early job performance is limited by ability and better predictor of maximum, while later job performance is influenced more by motivation because performance decreases over time regardless of experience or ability Objective vs. subjective performance measures: objective: production, sales, and personnel data used in assessing individual job performance; subjective: ratings or rankings made by supervisors, or others Relative rating system: a subjective measurement system that compares the overall performance of one employee to that of others to establish a rank order of employee performance  Rank order: the rater arranges the employees in order of their perceived overall performance level.  Paired comparisons: the rater compares the overall performance of each worker with that of every other worker who must be evaluated.  Forced distribution: system sets up a limited number of categories that are tied to performance standards (only specified percentage can be put in one category that is predetermined)  Relative percentile method: overcomes one of the major short-comings of other comparative rating systems by allow raters to compare individuals on job performance dimensions that have been derived through job analytic procedures. Absolute rating systems: compares the performance of one worker with an absolute standard of performance; can be used to assess performance on one dimension or to provide an overall assessment  Graphic rating scales: can be produced to assess an employee on any job dimension (not fair)  Behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS): use empirically derived critical incident job behaviours to anchor the values placed on a rating scale  Behaviour observation scales (BOS): very similar to BARS in that the starting point is an analysis of critical job incidents by those knowledgeable about the job to establish performance dimensions and then rated on frequency of occurrence CHAPTER 7: Applicant Screening: Screening: the first step of the selection process; involves identifying individuals from the applicant pool who have the minimum qualifications for the target position(s); susceptible to screening errors  False positives: individuals who are predicted to perform successfully in a given position, but who do not perform at satisfactory levels when placed on the job  False negatives: individuals who are predicted to perform unsuccessfully in a given position, but who would perform at satisfactory levels if hired. 4 Designated Groups: women, minority, Aboriginals and people with disabilities (usually will increase screening score—given priority) Selection ratio: the proportion of applicants for one or more positions who are hired Screening Methods:  Application Forms (Blank): a form completed by job candidates to provide an employer with basic information about their knowledge, skills, education, or other job-related information  Weighted Application Blanks: weighted application blanks: a method for quantitatively combining information from application blank items by assigning weights that reflect each item’s value in predicting job success  Biographical Data: biographical information blank (BIB): a pre-selection questionnaire that asks applicants to provide job-related information on their personal background and life experiences  Biodata: biographical data for job applicants that have been gathered from BIBs, application blanks, or other sources (concerns over legality but good to use for large #’s, few positions)  Résumés: voluntary autobiography, work history, education, experience and references  Reference Checks: info gathered about a job candidate from supervisors, coworkers, clients, or other people named as references by the candidate (usually through telephone interviews)  Background Checks: obtaining info to confirm info obtained from applicant  Validity Coefficient: the correlation between assessment scores and job performance measures CHAPTER 8: Ability and Aptitude Tests:  Abilities: enduring general traits or characteristics on which people differ and which they bring to a work situation (when they first begin to perform the task)  Skill: an individual’s degree of proficiency or competency on a given task, which develops through performing the task  Aptitude: a specific, narrow ability or skill that may be used to predict job performance  Cognitive abilities: assess intelligence, general mental ability, or intellectual ability including reasoning, problem solving, memory and processing info (paper &
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