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Ch 7.docx

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 650
Frank Miller

Ch 7: Implementing Change Coach Image of Implementing Change The Organization Development (OD) Characteristics - It is planned and involved a systematic diagnosis of the whole organizational system, a plan for its improvement, and provision of adequate resources - The top of the organization is committed to the change process - It aims at improving the effectiveness of the organization in order to help it achieve its mission - It is long term, typically taking two or three years to achieve effective change - Is it action oriented - Changing attitudes behaviour is a focus of the change effort - Experiential based training is important as it helps to identify current behaviours and modifications that are needed - Groups and teams form the key focus for change Three value sets are emphasized in OD field Humanistic values – openness, honesty, and integrity Democratic values – social justice, freedom of choice, and involvement Developmental values – authenticity, growth, and self realization The OD Practitioner: consultant that helps to structure activities to help the organization members to solve their own problems and learn to do that better 1. Problem identification – someone in the organization becomes aware of what they think is a problem that needs to be addressed 2. Consultation with the OD practitioner – the client and the practitioner come together with the latter endeavoring to create a collaborative dialogue 3. Data gathering and problem diagnosis – interviews, observations, surveys and analysis of performance data occur to assist in problem diagnosis. Each of these techniques is recognized as an intervention in itself in the sense that it involves an interaction with people 4. Feedback – the consultant provides the client with relevant data, at the same time protecting the identity of people from whom information was obtained. 5. Joint problem diagnosis – as part of the action research process, people are involved in consideration of information and discuss what it means in terms of required changes 6. Joint action planning – the specific actions that need to be taken are identified 7. Change actions – the introduction of and transition to new technique and behaviors occur 8. Further data gathering – outcomes of change are determined and further actions identified OD Practitioners need variety of skills (Cummings and Worley) - Intrapersonal skills: having a well-developed set of values and personal integrity including the ability to retain their own health in high stress organizational situations - Interpersonal skills: which are needed in order to work with groups and gain their trust in order to “provide them with counseling and coaching necessary to develop and change” - General consultation skills: including knowledge about intervention techniques to assist them in diagnosing problems and designing change interventions - Organization development theory: to ensure they have a current understanding of the specialist field of which they are a part Criticism of OD - OD definitions and concepts - OD may consist of single or multiple interventions over different periods of time, so establishing the relationship between “OD” and its ability to enhance - Internal validity problems – this relates to whether the change that occurred was caused by the change intervention or a range of other factors - External validity problems – this relates to whether the change that occurred was caused by the change intervention or range of other factors - Lack of theory – there is no comprehensive theory of change to assist researchers in knowing what to look for in what they study - Problems with measuring attitude changes – using prechange and then postchange surveys to measue attitudinal changes are problematic as people may view the scale differently when they answer it a second time - Problems with normal science approaches to research – the ability to use these techniques (hypothesis testing, assessing cause – effect relationships etc.) is questioned in relation to OD being a process based on action research Lewin’s Change Process - Unfreezing: establishing the need for change o Identification of problems o Consultation with OD practitioner o Gathe
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