Chapter 5: Diagnosis for Change
What is Paradigm
- A paradigm is a system of rules and regulations that does two things:
- First, some of the rules set limits or establish boundaries
- Just like a pattern sets the edges.
- Then, the rest of the rules offer you guidance on how to be successful by solving problems that exist inside those boundaries
- In a sense, they offer you a model for problem solving.
The Paradigm Principles
- Paradigms are common
- Paradigms are useful
- Don’t let your paradigm become the paradigm
- Outsiders bring new paradigms
- Shifting paradigms takes courage
- You can choose to change your paradigms
Five Ways in which Organizational Models can be Useful – Burke
1. By making the complexity of a situation where thousands of different things are “going on” more manageable by reducing that situation to a
manageable number of categories
2. By helping identify which aspects of an organization’s activities or properties are those most needing attention
3. By highlighting the interconnectedness of various organizational properties (eg. Strategy and structure)
4. By providing a common “language” with which to discuss organizational characteristics
5. By providing a guide to the sequence of actions to take in a change situation.
Framing the Scale of Change
Fine Tuning Incremental Adjustment Modular Transaction Corporate Transformation
Framing: Bolman and Deal
Human Resources – How will we manage the needs and motives of the people as we implement the change
Political – Who are the stakeholders who will be affected by our change and how will they be affected? What will “winning” and “losing” look like?
Symbolic – How will the change fit our culture of who we are and how do we do things?
Structural – How will we create a pattern of relationships to accomplish our change? What structures need to be created for our change to be
- The image of the change manager has an impact on the types of tools that may be used.
- The different images highlight the range of reasons why tools like these may be utilized – they illustrate the numerous ways change can be
Images of Managing Change
Images Diagnostic Tools
Director Using diagnostic tools to build up your own knowledge base and confidence about
what needs to change by using models that specify relationships among variables
and pinpoint where change is needed when things are not going well.
Navigator You will find the diagnostic tools attractive; models are ways of “mapping” the
environment they describe.
Caretaker You will be less convinced of the capacity of the diagnostic tools to support radical
change, but several of the tools (see, e.g., PESTEL and scenario analysis) provide
insights into the trends in the external environment that you will have to take into
Coach You will focus on the diagnostic tools that highlight the goals being sought and the
competencies needed to attain them
Interpreter You will be attracted to the diagnostic tools that emphasize images, framing, and
Nurturer Having an interest in emergent strategy, you may remain unconvinced as to the
value of such diagnostic tools.
Advantages of Diagnostic Tools
- Simplify a complex situation.
- Identify priorities for attention.
- Highlight interconnectedness of various organizational properties (e.g., strategy and structure).
- Provide a common “language” with which to discuss organizational characteristics.
- Provide a guide to the sequence of actions to take in a change situation.
Diagnostic Models: Organizational Performance
1. Six-Box Organizational Model
- The key focus here is on six variables:
o Purpose – what business are we in?
o Structure – how do we divide up the work>
o Rewards – do all tasks have incentives? o Helpful mechanisms – have we adequate coordinating technologies?
o Relationships – how do we manage conflict among people? With technologies?
o Leadership – does someone keep the boxes in balance?
- This model is useful to maintain awareness of all areas for consideration even though one variable may be identified as the main area for
Six-Box Organizational Model 7-S Framework 2. 7-S Framework
- Based on propositions that
o Organizational effectiveness come from the interaction of multiple factors
o Successful change require attention to the interconnectedness of the variables
- Factors are characterized into seven categories:
o Structure – formal organizational design
o Strategy – company’s chosen route to competitive success
o Systems – the various procedures in areas such