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MHR 733 Midterm: MHR733 Chapter 3

12 Pages

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 733
Rakhshinda Siraj

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find more resources at Chapter 3: Learning & Motivation Introduction • Understanding adult learning theory, how people learn, and their motivation for lear▯i▯g is i▯tegral to a trai▯i▯g progra▯’s su▯▯ess • Organizations need to be strategic in their approach to achieve organizational effectiveness • Training is the means to accomplish the goal of learning What is learning? • Learning is the process of: – Acquiring knowledge and skills – Change in individual behaviour as a result of some experience (formal or informal) • Learning occurs when one experiences a new way of acting, thinking, or feeling, finds the new pattern gratifying or useful, and incorporates it into the repertoire of behaviours • When the behaviour is learned, it can be thought of as a skill • The most important issue is whether trainees have learned what was covered in a training program Lear▯i▯g outco▯es: Gag▯e’s Model –observable behaviours • Verbal information – facts, knowledge, principles, and packages of information also k▯o▯▯ as ▯de▯larati▯e k▯o▯ledge▯ – for example, the five disciplines of a learning organization, product knowledge • Intellectual skills – ▯o▯▯epts, rules, a▯d pro▯edures that are k▯o▯▯ as ▯pro▯edural k▯o▯ledge▯ – for example, how to drive a car, handbook rules • Cognitive strategies (cognitive outcomes) – the application of information and techniques – for example, how and when to use knowledge and information • Motor skills (skill-based outcomes) – the coordination and execution of physical movements that involve muscles – for example, learning how to swim, playing tennis • Attitudes (affective outcomes) – prefere▯▯es a▯d i▯ter▯al states asso▯iated ▯ith o▯e’s beliefs and feelings – for example, belief in the value of postsecondary education; note that attitudes are believed to be the most difficult domain to influence through training Lear▯i▯g outco▯es: Kraiger & Colleagues’ Model • Cognitive domain: knowledge • Skill-based outcomes: motor skills/technical • Affective outcomes: attitudinal and motivational 1. Cognitive domain – quantity and type of knowledge includes: verbal knowledge, knowledge organization, and cognitive strategies find more resources at find more resources at 2. Skill-based outcomes – motor skills/technical includes: compilation, proceduralization, and composition (fast and fluid performance), and automaticity (ability to perform without conscious monitoring) 3. Affective outcomes – attitudinal (internal state that affects behaviour) and motivational (goal orientation, self-efficacy, goals) Implications of Learning outcomes on T&D • A training program can focus on one or more learning outcomes • The extent to which a training program has an effect on any of the outcomes depends in part on the training objectives • Training methods are more or less effective depending on the learning outcome a program was designed to influence • Different instructional events and conditions of learning are required for each of the learning outcomes • The more the learning outcomes are interrelated, changes in one might result in changes in another • Learning generally occurs over a period of time and progresses through a series of stages Adaptive Character of Thought Theory: Stages of Learning- ACT • ACT theory, developed by John Anderson, called the adaptive character of thought theory (ACT), describes the learning process as it unfolds across three stages: declarative, knowledge compilation, and procedural knowledge or proceduralization a. Declarative knowledge involves learning knowledge, facts, and information; for example, when learning to drive a car all your attention is focused on the task of learning b. Knowledge compilation involves integrating tasks into sequences to simplify and streamline; for example, during this stage of learning to drive a car, the process that involved many separate tasks is now integrated into one smooth sequence (get into the car, put on the seatbelt, adjust the seat and mirror, and start the car); performance is still somewhat fragmented and piecemeal c. Procedural knowledge involves mastery of the task and performance becomes automatic and habitual; for example, we can now perform the driving task without giving much thought to what we are doing - it is possible to perform the task of driving while listening to music or talking to others. (when you get used to making coffee and you forget one step because you think u know everything) Implications of ACT Theory on T&D • Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization) find more resources at find more resources at • Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages • The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning Resource Allocation Theory • Suggests that individuals possess limited cognitive resources that can be used to learn a new task • The amount of cognitive resources an individual can allocate to learning a new task varies across the three stages of learning, as identified in ACT theory • Performance is determined by: • Individual differences in attention and cognitive resources ( • The requirements of the task (task complexity) • Self-regulatory activities (self-monitoring and self-evaluation) • Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization) • Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages • The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning • NOTE: research has shown that goal-setting can be harmful to learning during the early stages of learning when all of one’s atte▯tio▯ a▯d ▯og▯iti▯e resour▯es ▯ust ▯e de▯oted to learning the task; resource allocation theory states that during the early stages of learning, cognitive ability is more important than motivational strategies. When goals are set in the later stages of learning, they can have a positive effect on performance. Learning Styles - The way an individual gathers information, processes, and evaluates it during the learning process (David Kolb) • Learning modes involve the way people gather information: - CE = concrete experience - AC = abstract conceptualization • Learning modes also involve the way peoplstprocess or evaluate information: - AE = active experimentation- 1 interaction - RO = reflective observation • The combination of these learning modes results in a learning style • CONVERGING: combines abstract conceptualization and active experimentation (thinking and doing); problem solving and practical application of ideas and theories • DIVERGING: combines concrete experience and reflective observation (feeling and watching); view situations from different points of view and generate alternative courses of action • ASSIMILATION: combines abstract conceptualization and reflective observation (thinking and watching); process and integrate information/ideas into logical forms and theoretical models • ACCOMMODATING: combines concrete experience and active experimentation (feeling and doing); prefer hands-on experience and like to be involved in new experiences find more resources at find more resources at Learning Styles • People can learn best by using all four styles • Kol▯ ide▯tifies a ▯lear▯i▯g ▯▯▯le▯ i▯ ▯hi▯h people use all four ▯odes of lear▯i▯g i▯ a sequence • Learning is most effective when all four steps in the learning cycle are part of the learning experience Implications of Learning Style Theory for Training • People differ in the way they prefer to learn • Success/comfort in training depends on matching training approach and learning style • Desig▯ trai▯i▯g progra▯s to appeal to people’s differe▯t lear▯i▯g st▯les • Programs should be designed with each learning mode as part of a sequence of learning experiences • Recognizes that people differ in the way they prefer to learn • Success and comfort in training depends on how training approach and learning style match • Desig▯ trai▯i▯g progra▯s to appeal to people’s different learning styles • Programs should be designed with each learning mode as part of a sequence of learning experiences Learning theories A. Conditioning theory (B.F. Skinner) – Learning is a result of reward and punishment contingencies that follow a response to a stimulus – A stimulus or cue would be followed by a response, which is then reinforced – Strengthens the likelihood that response will occur again and that learning will result – * Both forms of reinforcement will increase or maintain behaviour – Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour in response to stimulus – This is the behaviourist school of psychology that states learning is a result of reward and punishment – Negative reinforcement is not the same as punishment (the application of a negative consequence in response to undesirable behaviour) The conditioning process involves: • The conditioning process involves linking desired behaviour to pleasurable consequences through shaping, chaining, and generalization • Shaping (reinforcement until mastery) is extremely important for complex behaviour, the reinforcement of each step in a process until it is mastered • Chaining (reinforcement of entire sequences) is to learn to combine each step and perform the entire response, the reinforcement of entire sequences of a task find more resources at find more resources at • Generalization (conditioned response) is when the learner can perform the task in a variety of situations, the conditioned response that occurs in circumstances different from those during learning A. Social cognitive theory - Social learning involves learning though the interactions with others - This can be formal or informal People learn by: - Observing the behaviour of others - Making choices about different courses of action to pursue - Managing their own behaviour in the process of learning • We observe the actions of others and make note of reinforcing or punishing outcomes • We imitate what we have observed and expect certain consequences • Research suggests that people observe and reproduce the actions and attitudes of others Social cognitive theory has 3 key components: 1. Observation: learning by observing the actions of others and the consequences with 4 key critical elements: • Attention--learners must attend to the behaviour (be aware of the skills that are observable) • Retention--learners must remember what they have observed and encode it in their own repertoire so they can recall the skills • Reproduction--they must try out the skill through practice and rehearsal • Reinforcement--if the reproduction results in positive outcomes (reinforcement) it is likely to continue 2. Self-efficacy: judgments people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task • Self-effi▯a▯▯ has a stro▯g effe▯t o▯ people’s attitudes, e▯otio▯s, a▯d behaviour • Influences the activities people choose to perform, the amount of effort and persistence devoted to a task, their affective and stress reactions, and performance outcomes S
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