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MHR 733 Midterm: MHR733 FULL NOTES CH1-4

27 Pages

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 733
Rakhshinda Siraj

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find more resources at MHR733- thursday Individual topic: #23 – diversity training Midterm: M/C, T/F, short answers Final: Case/ essay type question (choose ½ topics) On d2l, CLASS 1- Chapter 1: The Training & Development Process Introduction • Training and development (T&D) is important to employees, organizations, and customers/clients • Many serious incidents are caused by a lack of training, which costs lives and money • Value of training and development (T&D) cannot be underestimated as it is of vital importance to employees, organizations, and those of us who use public transport and purchase goods and services every day of our livesSuccess is dependent upon T&D • T&D a key factor in creativity, innovation, and transfer of knowledge • T&D provides a sound return on investment (ROI) • Success and competitiveness are highly dependent upon sound T&D; it is critical to organizational performance • T&D a key factor in creativity, innovation, and transfer of knowledge, and is part of the defining factors of best companies to work for in Canada • It is a sound investment with a return on investment (ROI) Performance Management • Performance management is the process of establishing performance goals and designing interventions and programs to motivate and develop employees to improve their performance • The process signals what is really important to an organization, ensures accountability for behaviour and results, and helps to improve performance - Training provides info, provides necessary things to create skill set Development: testing on communication, talent management, talent attraction, leadership (4), training into future improvements, training for future position u will be holding in the organization The Performance Management (PM) Process • PM involves activities and programs to develop employees and improve performance – Establishing or reestablishing performance goals and expectations— performance goals should be SMART – Monitoring employee performance and providing feedback – Performance evaluation with consequences find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday • Employee development plans are critical • It is not a single event; it is a comprehensive process involving activities and programs designed to develop employees and improve their performance - Establishing or reestablishing performance goals and expectations (performance goals should be SMART: specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, with a time frame) - Monitoring employee performance and providing feedback - Performance evaluation with consequences • Employee development plans are critical in this process • Ex: student loan 2 yrs, after graduation by… t▯o jo▯s ▯“MART▯ • Performance goals should be clear to employees (SMART) • Managers should monitor performance and provide ongoing feedback • Formal performance evaluation should involve an appraisal process and performance consequences to reward employees for accomplishing goals and reinforce employee behaviour and performance • Employee development through training and development (including a development plan) can include formal programs as well as on-the-job training such as coaching and mentoring 1) performance management system: SMART 2) Performance evaluation- one-time process- on going process: if the employee has met their expectations to their tasks, goal setting 1-5 scale grading achieved) this determines if there is a performance gap: this tells us if there should be a training only if expectations do not meet expectations. Otherwise, you have to identify ways why there is a performance gap using need analysis. EX: Performance gap: large number in selling numbers decreasing, (Need analysis: commitment training or skill training is applied if there is a gap) 3) Exceed/ lack performance plan: - exceed :set them for incentives, reward system, opportunities. - Lack: Training & Development (T&D) • Training is formal and planned efforts that allow employees to acquire knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) to improve performance in their current job (short-term focus) • An example of training would be sending an employee to a workshop to learn a new software package or to better serve customers find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday • Development is formal and planned efforts to help employees acquire KSAs required to perform future job responsibilities, i.e., career goals and organizational objectives (longer-term focus) • An example of development might be sending an employee to a leadership development program to prepare the employee for future responsibility as a manager Human Resources Development (HRD) • Systematic and planned activities designed to provide employees with an opportunity to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands • These are all activities planned by the organization to allow employees the opportunity to fulfill their responsibilities now and in the future • The main functions of HRD are training and development, organizational development, and career development • The core of all three HRD functions is LEARNING • T&D, OD, and career development all fit under the umbrella of HRD • It is important to remember that learning is at the centre of all these experiences T&D Benefits • Organizations that invest in the T&D of their employees reap benefits, as do the employees and the society in which they live • T&D plays a critical role in the success and well-being of organizations, workers, and society A) To Organizations- - Strategy: training employees to have knowledge and skills to help achieve organizational goals and objectives - the goal of all organizations is to survive and prosper. By linking training to an orga▯izatio▯’s strateg▯, trai▯i▯g ▯e▯o▯es a strategic activity that operates with other programs and activities to achieve an organization's strategic business objectives (ex: cost strategy, customer service skills) - Effectiveness: increases competitive advantage - Trained employees can do more and work more effectively with fewer errors, require less supervision, have a more positive attitude, and have lower rates of attrition. The link between training and organizational performance is strongly supported by research - Employee recruitment and retention: attracts and helps keep top talent - It helps attract and retain talent. It is used by employers to increase their attractiveness to prospective employees and retain current employees B) To Employees Intrinsic (internal) - Improved knowledge and skills find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday - Confidence or self-efficacy - Feelings of increased usefulness - Increased sense of belonging - Positive attitudes toward their job and organization Extrinsic (external) • Higher earnings • Improved marketability • Greater security of employment • Enhanced opportunity for advancement and promotion  Intrinsic benefits are internal to an individual, such as knowledge and attitudes  Extrinsic benefits are those external to an individual, such as salary c) To Society • Educated and employed population: for example, some organizations offer literacy and ▯u▯era▯▯ trai▯i▯g for those ▯ho did▯’t o▯tai▯ it through the s▯hool s▯ste▯ ▯ut ▯eed it to perform their jobs • Health and safety: i▯pro▯ed safet▯ ▯a▯ sa▯e people’s li▯es a▯d i▯pro▯e the safet▯ of employees and the public • Economy and standard of living: improving and investing in the knowledge and skills of the workforce is one way to improve productivity T&D in Canada • Just over half of workers (56 percent) have access to employer-sponsored training; 44 percent have no access • Part-time, temporary workers and those less educated and older are less likely to receive training; as well as those employed in small- and medium-sized organizations (no full-time job security) (p/t workers might move on to better jobs using the skills gained during training) • (Canada spends 64 cents compared to every dollar the U.S. spends, Varies across sectors in Canada; tech and communications sectors spend more, Traditional sectors spend less, Average number of hours per employee dropped from 28 in 2008 to 25 in 2010) • Canadian organizations underinvest in T&D ($705 per employee in 2013 compared with $1208 in the USA) • Average number of hours of training is below competitors (28 hours per employee in 2013 compared with 31.5 hours in the USA) • 2006: Canada ranked 21st in T&D spending • 2002: Canada ranked 12th in T&D spending • U▯deri▯▯est▯e▯t ▯a▯ lead to a gap i▯ esse▯tial skills to re▯ai▯ ▯o▯petiti▯e i▯ toda▯’s global marketplace • Must increase spending; look at it not as an expense, but as an investment find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday T&D: Investment or Expense? • Organizations that DO invest: – View training as an investment – Expect direct benefits and an ROI – See T&D as strategic and a driver of success – Some invest heavily; 1 in 5 spend more than 3 percent of payroll in training • However, the overall trend in Canada is a concern • Learning and training are not considered a high priority in Canadian organizations • Perception exists that training, learning, and development represents a cost or expense rather than an investment • Organizations that view training as a cost limit their training to what is required by law or necessary to survive; often training is one of the first things to be cut when budgets become tight • The financial sector, however, is an example of an industry that invests heavily, spending hundreds of millions annually in T&D Quebec Training Law • In Quebec, the Act to Foster the Development of Manpower Training (Bill 90) passed in 1995—▯▯% or trai▯i▯g la▯▯ • Only payroll training tax in North America; companies with payrolls of $1 million or more must invest a minimum of 1 percent of their payroll on government-sanctioned training, or pay into a provincial fund for workforce training • In Quebec, the Act to Foster the Development of Manpower Training (Bill 90) passed in ▯99▯: ▯▯% or trai▯i▯g la▯▯ • Represents the only payroll training tax in North America, whereby companies with payrolls of $1 million or more must invest a minimum of 1 percent of their payroll on government-sanctioned training or pay into a provincial fund for workforce training • This law has changed the way firms structure, organize, and deliver training • It has resulted in substantial growth in adult learning and training over the past two decades find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday T&D Context • Environmental factors influence the organizational context and all HRMS practices • Training and development is an important component of the HR system, which drives both individual performance and organizational effectiveness a. Environmental Context • Global competition: increasing global competition has forced organizations to improve their productivity and the quality of their goods and services. These improvements require employees to learn new skills. When workers go on international assignments, they need to be provided with cross-cultural training (social, business set up), diversity( training within an organization, equal represented (4 classes represented by law in adequete numbers, gettingg a figure of how their being represented in the organizaion, if they fall below the number, they do active recruitment n training for this skill set) • Technology (work ethics training , skills training), : has had a profound effect on how organizations operate and compete. New technology requires training to exploit the technology, tangible& intangible effects • Labour market: Changes in the labour market affect T&D. It has been estimated that there will be a critical shortage of skilled workers by 2013 and that there is a significant skills mismatch. To respond, the country will need to change its approach to education and training (self management training, • Organizational change: To remain competitive organizations have to adapt and change; therefore, managing change is a normal part of organizational life. Training programs on the change process as well as training that is part of the change program b. Organizational Context find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday • Strategy: organizations with a greater alignment between HR (including T&D) and their strategies have superior performance; strategic T&D refers to the alignment of an orga▯izatio▯’s trai▯i▯g ▯eeds a▯d progra▯s ▯ith a▯ orga▯izatio▯'s strateg▯ a▯d objectives • Structure: organizations are becoming increasingly flatter with fewer layers of management; tasks once considered managerial tasks are now performed by employees, which necessitates the need for training • Culture: shared beliefs and values determine the norms within an organization and expected behaviours; often communicated through training programs HRM Systems – HR planning – Job analysis – Compensation – Recruitment – Selection – Performance appraisal – Health and safety – Labour relations • HR systems and functions influence T&D • HR practices should be linked to business strategy and to one another • The entire system should be linked and aligned • The human resources system – Strategic HR management involves linkages to business strategy and to one a▯other to a▯hie▯e orga▯izatio▯’s strateg▯ – These practices form an integrated HR system known as a high-performance work system (HPWS) • HPWS is an interrelated system of human resources practices and policies • Includes recruitment and selection procedures, performance-contingent incentive compensation, performance management, a commitment to employee involvement, and T&D programs - This is a scientific and rational process with three major steps: needs analysis, design, and delivery and evaluation find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday Analysis, design, deliver, Development, implement, evaluation Needs analysis  performance evaluation -> Performance gap Organizational analysis: analyzing the organizational Ta sk: what are the skills required for the job, Person analysis: ability & Commitment of the person: does the person have the skill set, or willingness to perform the job Training design and delivery 1. Are they a learning, experimental, experiences learner, audio/visual learner? This determines what component you will include in the training 2. Content & Methods: by using activities 3. Training evaluation: assessing learners reaction, immediately once training happens, and time period to see if it is applied in the organization from training Instructional Systems Design Model • Rational and scientific model of T&D process consists of three major overlapping steps that starts with performance gap or problem: – Training needs analysis – Training design and delivery – Training evaluation • Begins with a performance gap (for example, customer complaints) or problem • Needs assessment through organizational analysis, task analysis, and person analysis helps to determine information about the problem with strategies identified for closing the gap • If training is the solution, a number of factors need to be considered in terms of the design and delivery of the training program, including writing objectives and determining the content of the training program find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday • After delivery, training evaluation looks at determining whether the program is effective and what aspects of the program should be retained, modified, or discarded • The ISD model guides strategic T&D process (and the rest of this course) Summary • Introduced the T&D process and importance T&D plays in organizations and performance management • Explained the benefits of T&D for organizations, employees, and society • Examined how T&D is embedded in environmental and organizational context and is part of the human resources system • Discussed the state of training in Canada and challenges faced related to skill development and productivity • Illustrated that for trai▯i▯g effe▯ti▯e▯ess it should ▯e alig▯ed ▯ith the orga▯izatio▯’s business strategies and other HR practices, and be a part of an HPWS • Introduced the instructional systems design (ISD) model KEY TERMS • Crew resource management (CRM) training • Development • High-performance work system (HPWS) • Human resource development • Instructional systems design (ISD) model • Organizational culture • Performance management • Skills mismatch • SMART goals • Strategic human resource management (SHRM) • Strategic training and development (ST&D) • Training • Training bond CLASS 2 CASE Flotation LTD: pg 32-33: printed case study: bullet point: case summary, problem identification, answer questions with relevant facts from textbook or research with citation, conclusion Cont: Chapter 1: Training & Development Process Adapts (externally) + aligns (internally) = open system find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday CLASS 3 Chapter 3: Learning & Motivation Introduction • Understanding adult learning theory, how people learn, and their motivation for lear▯i▯g is i▯tegral to a trai▯i▯g progra▯’s su▯▯ess • Organizations need to be strategic in their approach to achieve organizational effectiveness • Training is the means to accomplish the goal of learning What is learning? • Learning is the process of: – Acquiring knowledge and skills – Change in individual behaviour as a result of some experience (formal or informal) • Learning occurs when one experiences a new way of acting, thinking, or feeling, finds the new pattern gratifying or useful, and incorporates it into the repertoire of behaviours • When the behaviour is learned, it can be thought of as a skill • The most important issue is whether trainees have learned what was covered in a training program Diff between Learning outcomes (explain the end result) vs training objective- Lear▯i▯g outco▯es: Gag▯e’s Model –observable behaviours • Verbal information – facts, knowledge, principles, and packages of information also k▯o▯▯ as ▯de▯larati▯e k▯o▯ledge▯ – for example, the five disciplines of a learning organization, product knowledge • Intellectual skills – concepts, rules, a▯d pro▯edures that are k▯o▯▯ as ▯pro▯edural k▯o▯ledge▯ – for example, how to drive a car, handbook rules • Cognitive strategies (cognitive outcomes) – the application of information and techniques – for example, how and when to use knowledge and information • Motor skills (skill-based outcomes) – the coordination and execution of physical movements that involve muscles – for example, learning how to swim, playing tennis • Attitudes (affective outcomes) – prefere▯▯es a▯d i▯ter▯al states asso▯iated ▯ith o▯e’s beliefs and feelings – for example, belief in the value of postsecondary education; note that attitudes are believed to be the most difficult domain to influence through training Lear▯i▯g outco▯es: Kraiger & Colleagues’ Model • Cognitive domain: knowledge • Skill-based outcomes: motor skills/technical • Affective outcomes: attitudinal and motivational find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday 1. Cognitive domain – quantity and type of knowledge includes: verbal knowledge, knowledge organization, and cognitive strategies 2. Skill-based outcomes – motor skills/technical includes: compilation, proceduralization, and composition (fast and fluid performance), and automaticity (ability to perform without conscious monitoring) 3. Affective outcomes – attitudinal (internal state that affects behaviour) and motivational (goal orientation, self-efficacy, goals) Implications of Learning outcomes on T&D • A training program can focus on one or more learning outcomes • The extent to which a training program has an effect on any of the outcomes depends in part on the training objectives • Training methods are more or less effective depending on the learning outcome a program was designed to influence • Different instructional events and conditions of learning are required for each of the learning outcomes • The more the learning outcomes are interrelated, changes in one might result in changes in another • Learning generally occurs over a period of time and progresses through a series of stages Adaptive Character of Thought Theory: Stages of Learning- ACT • ACT theory, developed by John Anderson, called the adaptive character of thought theory (ACT), describes the learning process as it unfolds across three stages: declarative, knowledge compilation, and procedural knowledge or proceduralization a. Declarative knowledge involves learning knowledge, facts, and information; for example, when learning to drive a car all your attention is focused on the task of learning b. Knowledge compilation involves integrating tasks into sequences to simplify and streamline; for example, during this stage of learning to drive a car, the process that involved many separate tasks is now integrated into one smooth sequence (get into the car, put on the seatbelt, adjust the seat and mirror, and start the car); performance is still somewhat fragmented and piecemeal c. Procedural knowledge involves mastery of the task and performance becomes automatic and habitual; for example, we can now perform the driving task without giving much thought to what we are doing - it is possible to perform the task of driving while listening to music or talking to others. (when you get used to making coffee and you forget one step because you think u know everything) find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday Implications of ACT Theory on T&D • Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization) • Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages • The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning Resource Allocation Theory • Suggests that individuals possess limited cognitive resources that can be used to learn a new task • The amount of cognitive resources an individual can allocate to learning a new task varies across the three stages of learning, as identified in ACT theory • Performance is determined by: • Individual differences in attention and cognitive resources ( • The requirements of the task (task complexity) • Self-regulatory activities (self-monitoring and self-evaluation) • Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization) • Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages • The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning • NOTE: research has shown that goal-setting can be harmful to learning during the early stages of lear▯i▯g ▯he▯ all of o▯e’s atte▯tio▯ a▯d ▯og▯iti▯e resour▯es ▯ust ▯e de▯oted to learning the task; resource allocation theory states that during the early stages of learning, cognitive ability is more important than motivational strategies. When goals are set in the later stages of learning, they can have a positive effect on performance. Learning Styles - The way an individual gathers information, processes, and evaluates it during the learning process (David Kolb) • Learning modes involve the way people gather information: - CE = concrete experience - AC = abstract conceptualization • Learning modes also involve the way people process or evaluate information: st - AE = active experimentation- 1 interaction - RO = reflective observation • The combination of these learning modes results in a learning style • CONVERGING: combines abstract conceptualization and active experimentation (thinking and doing); problem solving and practical application of ideas and theories • DIVERGING: combines concrete experience and reflective observation (feeling and watching); view situations from different points of view and generate alternative courses of action find more resources at find more resources at MHR733- thursday • ASSIMILATION: combines abstract conceptualization and reflective observation (thinking and watching); process and integrate information/ideas into logical forms and theoretical models • ACCOMMODATING: combines concrete experience and active experimentation (feeling and doing); prefer hands-on experience and like to be involved in new experiences Learning Styles • People can learn best by using all four styles • Kol▯ ide▯tifies a ▯lear▯i▯g ▯▯▯le▯ i▯ ▯hi▯h people use all four ▯odes of lear▯i▯g i▯ a sequence • Learning is most effective when all four steps in the learning cycle are part of the learning experience Implications of Learning Style Theory for Training • People differ in the way they prefer to learn • Success/comfort in training depends on matching training approach and learning style • Desig▯ trai▯i▯g progra▯s to appeal to people’s differe▯t lear▯i▯g st▯les • Programs should be designed with each learning mode as part of a sequence of learning experiences • Recognizes that people differ in the way they prefer to learn • Success and comfort in
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