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18 Pages

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 733
Rakhshinda Siraj

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find more resources at MIDTERM REVIEW GUIDE CHAPTER 1: PERFROMANCE MAANGEMENT PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT - Performance management is the process of establishing performance goals and designing interventions and programs to motivate and develop employees to improve their performance - This process signals to employees what is important to the organization, it ensures accountability for behaviour and results and improves performance - It▯s a comprehensive, ongoing and continuous process that involves various activities and programs designed to develop employees and improve their performance Step 1: Performance Expectation and Goals - List out the goals to the employee, what are the desirable behaviours expected of them. - Define the performance, set performance expectation and set performance goals - The managers must meet up with their employees and discuss the performance expectations and agree on performance goals. These goals usually stem from an organizational level goals and objectives - This ensures that the employees goals and the department levels goals align - The goal setting process should include SMART goals (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time frame) Step 2: Monitor Performance and Provide Feedback - Once the smart goals are in place it is important for the managers to monitor the e▯plo▯ees▯ performance and provide feedback so that the employee knows whether they are accomplishing their goal or not Step 3: Performance Evaluation and Consequences - Formal performance evaluation - To see ▯hethe▯ the e▯plo▯ee is ▯eeti▯g the goals the▯e▯s a ▯ati▯g s▯ale fo▯ the pe▯so▯ 1-5 which can identify a performance gap and then asses the need for a training session - Usually involves the use of standard rating process on which the manager and employee (self-appraisal) evaluate the e▯plo▯ee▯s performance on several behavioural and performance dimensions and review to what extent the employee has accomplished his or her goals - The process repeats itself with the setting of new or revised goals - This all helps reinforce employee behaviour and performance Step 4: Employee Training and Development - This is when there is a creation of a development plan for employees - It involves programs and activities that are designed to help employees achieve their goals and improve performance - Training and development fits in here - Employee development can include informal training and development programs in classroom as well as on-the-job training programs such as coaching and mentoring programs - This step is in the middle because it connects to all aspects o You might realize you need training if you start setting up your goals find more resources at find more resources at o You ▯ight ▯ealize ▯ou ▯eed t▯ai▯i▯g ▯hile ▯ou▯▯e gi▯i▯g feed▯a▯k o You might realize you need training if you start evaluating the performance and figure out that strengths and weaknesses that the need for a developmental program is needed TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT - Training is formal and planned efforts that allow employees to acquire knowledge, skills, abilities (KSA) to improve performance in their current job (short term focus) - Development is formal and planned efforts to help employees a▯▯ui▯e K“A▯s ▯e▯ui▯ed to perform future job responsibilities i.e. career goals and organizational objectives. The goal is to prepare individuals for future promotions and future jobs that require more responsibility o This process might consist of extensive programs such as leadership development, seminars, workshops, job rotation, coaching o The goal is to prepare employees for future promotions and managerial careers - Training and Development is a part of a larger system known as the HRD (Human Resource Development) which includes planned activities to develop e▯plo▯ee▯s skills its all-around focus is training and development BENEFITS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Organizational - Strategy: o Training Employees to have knowledge and skills to help achieve organizational goals and objectives o Linking training to organizations strategy, training becomes a strategic activity that operates with other programs to achieve the business objectives - Effectiveness: o increases competitive advantage o trained employees do more and better work with fewer errors and require less supervision o they have more positive attitudes o they produce higher quality products o more money spent of training the employees out preform others on things like customer satisfaction, profitability, productivity - Employee Recruitment and Retention: o attracts and helps keep top talent o its considered to be a more important in career growth and professional development o an organization that fails to provide opportunities to its employees with be a disadvantage in attracting new employees o It▯s one of the most valued assets of any organization Employees - Intrinsic Benefits (internal) o Improves knowledge and skills o Improves their performance and behaviour o Confidence or self-efficacy find more resources at find more resources at o Feelings of increased usefulness o Increased sense of belonging o Positive attitudes toward their job and organization o They want to seek out more opportunities - Extrinsic Benefits (external) o higher earning o improved marketability o greater security of employment o enhanced opportunity for advancement and promotion Society - educated and employed population o it reduces unemployment o training helps educate and build employable workforce o because of this training it can also help them function more effectively in society o employees that participate in training programs report that their new skills better manage their personal lives o more likely to be able to read instructions to assemble and calculate bills and expenses o more likely to find employment if they get laid off - health and safety o reduces errors o improves safety and saves lives o reduce life threatening errors in high risk environments o improve safety of employees and the public - economy and standard of living o key to standard living and overall prosperity is productivity growth o improves the education of the workforce o higher education = higher employment options o training investments leads to job creations and opportunities o skills mismatch or shortage means that there is a lack of people that have the skills to do the jobs TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT – INVESTMENT OR EXPENSE - i▯ Ca▯ada, it▯s ▯ot a huge i▯▯est▯e▯t ▯e▯ause lea▯▯i▯g is▯▯t a top p▯io▯it▯ - Training, learning and development is seen as a cost rather than an investment - Many organizations in Canada see training as a necessary operating expense that should be minimized - Organization that view training as a cost tend to limit their training investment to only what is required by law or necessary to survive - Organizations that view training as an investment expect direct results and benefits - It▯s a ke▯ fa▯to▯ fo▯ the ▯o▯petiti▯e▯ess a▯d su▯▯ess of a ▯usi▯ess - Canadas growth is far behind because businesses want to cut costs so that so they are less competitive - Government law lass called the Foster the Development of Manpower Training to promote businesses to invest in training find more resources at find more resources at - Some organization make employees sign a training bond which is a contract between the employer and employee that states that the employer will pay for the employees training if the employee remains with the organization for a minimum period after completed program THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT - Sometimes sudden changes prompt organizations to change their HR practices and policies Global Competition - Increase in global competition has forced organizations to improve their productivity for the quality of their goods and services - Because they have to increase their improvement of products it almost always requires the employee to learn new skills - They need to provide their employees with cross cultural training if they want to go international - Requires numerous changes in HR practices and need for training and development Technology - New technology can provide organizations with improvements in productivity and competitive advantage - But the technology has to be trained to the employees for it to be effective - Adoption of new technology will have a direct impact on the training needs of employees who require using tech Labour Market - Changes in the labour market and the supply of labour will require changes in the amount and type of training - If organization cannot hire enough people with the necessary skills and knowledge for the job due to a shortage of skilled labourers they must provide training to compete and survive Organizational Change - Because of the technological revolution and increasing globalization and competition have results in highly uncertain and changing environment - Managing change is a huge part of training and development process - If an organization implements a change program that involves a team-based work system then employees will require team training THE INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN MODEL OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT - Previously known as the ADDIE design = analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation - A rational and scientific model of T&D process consists of three major overlapping steps that starts with performance gap or problem o Training Needs Analysis o Training Design and Delivery o Training Evaluation - the training process always begins with a performance gap o something in the organization that is not right or is a concern for the organization find more resources at find more resources at o customer complaints, quality is low and market share is being lost o employees frustrated by management or tech STEP 1: NEEDS ANALYSIS - Organizational Analysis: gathers information on where training is needed in an organization - Task Analysis: what training is required - Person Analysis: identifies who in the organization needs to be trained o Determines the nature of the problem, what needs to be done o Based on data collected from managers, employees and customers all other alternatives must be assessed for training to be the actual end solution. Solutions to this can be feedback, incentives or other interventions than training until training is really needed STEP 2: TRAINING DESIGN AND DELIVERY - If training is the solution, the needs analysis information is used to write objectives and to determine the content of the training program - What▯s the ▯est t▯ai▯i▯g ▯ethod to a▯hie▯e the desi▯ed out▯o▯es a▯d ho▯ the▯ ▯a▯ learn from it 1. Training Objective 2. Training Content 3. Training Method 4. Learning Principles STEP 3: TRAINING EVALUATION - The needs analysis and the training objectives help provide important information regarding what should be evaluated to see if the training was effective - Based on training evaluation, decisions can be made about what aspects of the training program should be retained, modified or discarded 1. Evaluation Criteria 2. Evaluation Design find more resources at find more resources at CHAPTER 3: LEARNING AND MOTIVATION LEARNING OUTCOMES - Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and skills. Involves the change of state that makes possible a corresponding change in o▯e▯s behaviour GAGNE’S MODEL 1. Verbal information o Facts, knowledge, principles and packages of information or what is known as declarative knowledge 2. Intellectual Skills o Concepts rules and procedures that are known as procedural knowledge. Procedural rules may govern many activities in our daily lives such as driving, or shopping 3. Cognitive Strategies o The application of knowledge, information and techniques and understanding how and when to use that information 4. Motor Skills o The coordination and execution of physical movements that involve the use of muscles 5. Attitudes o Preferences and internal states asso▯iated ▯ith o▯e▯s ▯eliefs a▯d feeli▯gs o Attitudes leaned and can be changed o Considered to be the most difficult domain to influence through training KURT KRAIGER 1. Cognitive Domain - The quantity and type of knowledge and the relationships among knowledge elements - Includes verbal knowledge (declarative knowledge), knowledge organization (procedural knowledge and structures for organizing knowledge or mental models) and cognitive strategies (mental activities that facilitate knowledge acquisition and application. Or what is known as metacognition) 2. Skill Based - The development of technical or motor skills and include compilation (fast and fluid performance of a task because of composition) and automaticity (ability to perform a task without conscious monitoring) 3. Affective Outcomes - These a▯e the out▯o▯es that is ▯eithe▯ ▯og▯iti▯e o▯ skilled ▯ased it▯s all a▯out attitudinal  an internal state that effects behaviour and motivational outcomes  goal orientation and self-efficacy goals ADAPTIVE CHARACTER OF THOUGHT THEORY AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION THEORY - Describes learning process in 3 stages: declarative knowledge, knowledge compilation and procedural knowledge - Resource Allocation Theory: explains how people learn during each stage as a function of the resources require learning a new task. Individuals possesses limited cognitive find more resources at find more resources at resources that can help them learn a new task and to be able to perform a new task it is all based on the i▯di▯idual▯s cognitive resources. 1. Declarative Knowledge - Learning knowledge, facts, and information - Like when you learn to drive a new car you focus on the rules - The person must devote all their attention and cognitive resources to the task of learning - Pe▯fo▯▯a▯▯e is ▯esou▯▯e depe▯de▯t ▯e▯ause all of o▯e▯s atte▯tio▯ a▯d ▯e▯tal resources are required to lean the task 2. Knowledge Compilation o Integrating new tasks into sequences to simplify and streamline the task o They must acquire the ability to translate the declarative knowledge into action o Performance at this stage is still fragile 3. Procedural Knowledge o The learner has mastered the task and performance is automatic and habitual o The task can be performed without too much thought o Transition from knowledge to application is complete - Implications for this theory o Learning involves steps o Motivational interventions might be less effective depending on the stage of learning KOLB’S LEARNING CYCLE - The way an individual gathers information and evaluate it during the learning process - Different styles include: converging, diverging, assimilating, accommodating - People who prefer to gather info by direct experience = FEELING - People who prefer to gather info by thinking about issues, idea, and concepts = THINKING - People who prefer to gather info by observing and reflecting on the info from different points of view = WATCHING - People who prefer to process info by acting on it and doing something practical with it = DOING - LEARNING STYLES o Converging  Abstract conceptualization and active experimentation = thinking and doing  Focus on problem solving and practical application of ideas and theories  Idea and experimentation o Diverging  Combine Concrete experiences and reflective observation = feeling and watching  They view concrete situations from different points of view and generate alternative courses of action o Assimilating  Abstract conceptualization and reflective observation = thinking and watching find more resources at find more resources at  Like to process and integrate information and ideas into logical forms and theoretical models o Accommodating  Concrete experience and active experimentation = feeling and doing  Prefer hands on experience and learn by being involved in new challenging experiences - Implications for Learning Style Training o people differ in the way they prefer to learn o success/comfort in training depends on the training approach and style o design training programs to appeal to peoples learning styles o programs should be designed with each learning mode as a part of a sequence of learning experiences LEARNING THEORIES Conditioning Theory - learning is a result of a reward and punishment contingencies that follow a response to a stimulus - a stimulus or cue would be followed by a response, which is then reinforces - strengthens the likelihood that response will occur again and that learning will result - so, things like getting a pay check every two weeks will reinforce a certain behaviours (positive) - something bad that happens will be negatively reinforced - punishment and neg. reinforcement is different - Conditioning Process o Shaping: The reinforcement of each step in a process until it is mastered  It rewards the trainees for the acquisition of separate skills performed sequentially o Chaining: the reinforcement of entire sequences of a task  Shaping is all about mastering one step by one step  Chaining is more about mastering all the steps one after the other more fluid o Generalization: the conditioned response that occurs in circumstances different from those during learning  Being able to perform a task in different scenarios Social Cognitive Theory - People learn by o observing behaviours of others and learning through others o making choices about different courses of action to pursue o managing their own behaviours in the process of learning - THREE COMPONENTS o Observation  People observe others that have credible knowledge and see their behaviours and start to imitate it because they believe if they have the same shifts work ethic they too will be rewarded find more resources at find more resources at  Learning by observing the actions of others and the consequences with 4 key critical elements  Attention: be aware of the skills observable  Retention: must remember what they observed and encode it in their own skills so they can recall it  Reproduction: they must try out the skill, through practice and rehearsal  Reinforcement: if the results are good than they will continue to reproduce the behaviours and gain new skills o Self-Efficacy  Judgments people have about their own ability to successfully perform a specific task  Influences the activities people choose to preform and the amount of effort and persistence they devote to a task  Self-efficacy leads to improved task performance  Influences by 4 sources of information
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