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Chapter 11

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Human Resources
MHR 733
Rupa Banerjee

Chapter 11 Training Evaluation Training evaluation a process to assess the valuethe worthinessof training programs to employees and to organizationsWhy Conduct Training EvaluationsAssist managers in identifying the training programs most applicable to employees and to assist management in the determination of who should be trainedDetermine the cost benefits of a program and to help ascertain which program or training technique is most cost effectiveDetermine if training program has achieved the expected results or solves the program for which training was anticipated solutionDiagnose the strengths and weaknesses of a program and pinpoint needed improvementsUse the evaluation information to justify and reinforce the value and credibility of the training function to the organizationBarriers to Training EvaluationBest companies conduct more of the complex and sophisticated training evaluationsAccording to The Conference Board of Canada most organizations o 83 evaluate trainee reactions o 23 evaluate behavior o 37 evaluate learning o 12 evaluate organizational resultsMany employers do not conduct training evaluations because they are perceived to be too complicated to implement too time consuming and or too expensive A Pragmatic BarriersTraining managers feel insecure about evaluating training programs because they require knowledge about research design measurement and data analysis The principles techniques and procedures involved in training evaluation are logical and straightforward and most can be easily implementedTraining evaluations require that information objective andor perceptual measures about trainees be gathered from the trainees their supervisors andor coworkers and sometimes even subordinatesModern information technologies the impact of data collection can now be eased B Political BarriersNegative evaluations results might reflect poorly on them the training function and the training choices they makeConflict of interest can be solved as long as training managers make use of established methods of evaluation and document themMany feel that evaluations should be conducted by external professions thus draining off funds from training budgetType of Training Evaluation 1 The data collected a Trainee perceptions at the conclusion of trainingdid the participants like it b Psychological forcesassess the psychological forces that operate during training programs and that impact outcome measures such as learning and behavior change c Work environmentinformation about the work environment eg Measures of training transfer climate and learning culture have been developedTrainee perceptions learning and behaviour at the conclusion of training Assessing psychological forces that operate during trainingInformation about the work environment o Transfer climate and learning culture 2 The purpose of the evaluation a Formative evaluation provide data about various aspects of a training program b Summative evaluation provide data about worthiness or effectiveness of a training program Descriptive evaluations provide information that describes the trainee once he or she has competed a training programCausal evaluations provide information to determine if training caused the post training behaviours o Requires more sophisticated experimental and statistical procedures Models of Training EvaluationA Kirkpatriks Hierarchical Model The Four Levels of Training Evaluation Level 1 ReactionsTrainees report positive reactions to a training programLevel 2 LearningTrainees learn the training material Level 3 BehavioursTrainees apply what they learn in training on the job Level 4 ResultsTraining has a positive effect on organizational outcomes Critique of Kirkpatricks ModelThe correlations between the levels are small or non existent o Eg One may have learned little from an otherwise pleasant course or learned a great deal from a hated one such as biochem teachers o Eg People know smoking is not health yet many still do it o Therefore knowledge and behaviours are not synonymous and therefore Kirkpatrick model lacks empirical supportWhen something goes wrong with a training program model does not indicate the specific nature of the problem or what to do about itLack of precision in the outcomesKirkpatrick requires all training evaluations to rely on the same variables and outcome measures one model does not fit all in training evaluations situations
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